Ratté, Felicity. “Architectural invitations: images of city gates in medieval Italian painting.” Gesta 38, no. 2 (1999): 142-153.
The author of the article Ratte Felicity is a renowned Italian writer who specializes in writing about paintings. Felicity Ratte is the dean of Faculty at the Marlboro college in Massachusetts. In this article, the author focused on highlighting the investigations and continuing the discussions on the paintings available depicting the Florentine and Seness paintings way back in the 14th century. In doing so, the author conducted a study and research so as to be able to show the readers the readers the differences in the iconography of the paintings of the gates and the actual gates that were created.
The author conducted his study by looking at the various paintings and using literature review as one of her primary sources for writing the paper. In them, she tried to compare what each writer had said about the city gates, what the painters had painted, time of painting and its overall appearance. The author focused on the two City gates of Porta Romana (1327) and Porta San Niccolo Florence (1380) among other city gates and compared representations and the functions of the gate. One key discovery for the study and difference that the author is able to clearly highlight is the characterizations of the gates. The gates were built for the defensive aspects, However, the images show how they offer an invitation for the people to freely enter. The article provides a better understanding on how people can compare the city gates images and how they appeared in reality while taking in consideration the context and the iconographic differences as it also shows the paintings alongside the explanations.
Nevola, Fabrizio. “Surveillance and control of the street in Renaissance Italy.” I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance16, no. 1/2 (2013): 85-106.
The author Nevola Fabrizio is a graduate of Modern Art and Italian from the University of Oxford. He is a Ph.D. holder from Courtyard Institute of art. Currently, he is the director of the Centre of Early Modern Studies at the University of Exeter. In the article, the author provides an account of how the surveillance of the street in Renaissance was exactly conducted. The author is keen to highlight what were the main things that resulted in the need of performing a renaissance in that City. Nevola ensures that they have adequately shown the fourteen men that were in attendance of the honorable gonfolaniere and how they were able to effectively organize the citizen militia in the three districts in the times that the city needed security the most.
The author uses vivid and systematic narration to explain and show how the events of surveillance and control exactly took place. The article is also keen to show the incidents that shaped the major events in the town and how they were contained. Nevola gives the readers an accurate picture of the urban space dynamic structure, the way they managed the eyes on the streets. The article by Nevola is ideal as it is able to accurately paint the town of Italy as one of the papers where the interactions, transactions, and relationships took place and point out the reasons why they needed to be protected. Additionally, the article is ideal for its vivid descriptions, the addition of images for explanations and the authors use of the Italian dialect to name the works in their original names to reserve the authenticity.
Gardner, Julian. “An introduction to the iconography of the medieval Italian city gate.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 (1987): 199-213.
By the time of writing this article, Professor Julian Gardener was a researcher in the history of art and the medieval studies in the University of California in Berkley. Before writing this write up he had completed a research on the Roman crucible. The author main aim was to discuss the iconography of the city gates specifically in the Italy towns. The author, however, uses methodologies of researches, analysis and critical analysis that could be used on city gates in other towns. The author writes up accurately focused on the paintings and the sculptures that were in the cities. The author focused on the city gate iconographic innovations over the years up to the fourteenth century. He also focused on the Italy cities that at that time were bigger than in any other places.
The article is ideal for studies of the gates in Italy, including the Michelangelo gate as it is able to compare the iconographies of the gates and the painting through time. It is ideal for the research as it also highlights and outlines vividly the evidence and contingencies on the strategic functions and iconographies of the far more ancient origins of the iconography of the gates. The author uses simple language and terminology that allows readers to easily understand the concepts in the paper
Mac Dougall, Elisabeth B. “Michelangelo and the Porta Pia.” The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1960): 97-108.
One of the authors, Elisabeth Boehm was a painter herself and started writing about paintings. The two majored in Historical arts and Italian. They are both professors from the Radcliffe college. The authors of the article concentrated on the Portia Pia that was designed by Michelangelo before he met his death. The author first explains the origin or why the gates were constructed by the Pope Pius IV. The authors then went at great lengths to explain and expose the design of the Porta Pia.
The authors also were keen to note the unique feature of the Porta Pia and explain it to the readers. The authors cite that because it was of Michelangelo’s latest design and most of the designs are also still available. The authors work to act as accumulations and guideline on what the Porta Pia looked like, features and design. The article is also ideal as it is accompanied by photos and illustrations of the gate that gives the readers a view of how they looked making it easy to understand their work and Michelangelo’s designs.
What is unique about the article, though, is the fact that the authors clearly outlined and illustrates places where the designer, Michelangelo was able to derive his inspirations. The authors provide specific places with the designs. The authors conclude by throwing insights into how the new design of Porta Pia by Michelangelo showed the new concept and roles of the city gates that would be copied from that year onwards,
Millon, Henry A., and Craig Hugh Smyth. “A Design by Michelangelo for a City Gate: Further Notes on the Lille Sketch.” The Burlington Magazine 117, no. 864 (1975): 162-166.
The author Craig Hugh Smyth was an art historian who had a keen interest on Bronzino but he also studied Renaissance art and wrote an article about them. On the other hand, Millon Henry A was an award-winning author and enthusiast of the art and architectural history. The two authors came together and through this article explicitly examines some of the most famous drawing and designs of the City gates in Italy in the 14th and 15 the century. They were more focused on differentiating the works of the people and identifying the ones that were done by Michelangelo.
Through this critical examination, the authors are able to provide extensive information about the drawings and the designs. In addition, the authors also outline to the readers the pictures of the designs. The article is ideal as its data analysis methodology involves reviews of the writes before them critiquing and then forming their own conclusions. It is therefore, ideal as it shows the different drawings that were drawn by Michelangelo, thereby making the article key to making further research about the Michelangelo drawings.
Elam, Caroline. “Michelangelo: His Late Roman Architecture.” AA Files 1 (1981): 68-76.
The author of the article is carline Elam. She specializes in Florentine architecture and British art. In this particular article, she was more focused on Michelangelo paintings of the Italy gates. The author focuses in explaining and deriving meaning on the Michelangelo’s paintings, and designs during the last 20 years of his life. The authors’ article follows closely the painting and the designs of Michelangelo and explains the hidden and deep meanings of Michelangelo’s thoughts and religious standing in his last days as an architect and painter.
The author carefully combines analysis from other authors and arranges them in a systematic manner that allows readers to easily read them and get the whole picture of Michelangelo’s works in his lifetime.
On features that makes the article ideal to read is the systematic arrangement and follow through of the Michelangelo’s architectural developments over the years. The authors have vividly explained the developments from how he started till the end. The interpretations also borrow from fellow authors that had written an almost similar paper. The author focused on his designs of the churches. The author was keen to compare with other architects to be able to draw and show how distinct Michelangelo was. Finally, the author compares the same to the gates that Michelangelo designed earlier. The most significant part, is the way, the author manages to compare the latest drawings to the design of the Porta Pia gate. The author then draws a conclusion that has been built from the onset of the article that fits all the descriptions provided in the articles making it even more ideal for research and analysis.