Douglas A. Gentile, Paul J. Lynch, Jennifer Ruh Linder, David A. Walsh
Title of Article:
The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviours, and
Journal (Name, Year of publication, Volume number, and page numbers of the article):
Journal of Adolescence 27 (2004) 5–22
Purpose of Article/Area being studied & why:
The article was drafted based on two key goals. First, to determine the degree of relationship
between the degree of parental supervisory influence and video game behaviours on teenage
video game use. Finally, to assess the connection between violent video game contact, physical
fights, hostility, and arguments.
In addition, the research was to justify six critical theories:
Hostility traits are positively correlated to contact with violent video games.
Aggression in naturalistic backgrounds Is positively correlated to the exposure to violent
videos games more so physical fights and arguments with tutors.
Characteristic hostility regulates the impact of violent video game contact on hostile
Characteristic anger facilitates the Impact of vehement video games contacts on
The quantity of playing a video game is undesirably connected to academic
The quantity of playing a video game is not linked with violent behaviours.
Was this study correlational or an experiment?
The study majorly adopted a correlational research design. The design can be attributed to the
hypotheses that have been stated to evaluate the performance of the study. The study had four
hypotheses based on two aspects of video games: the sum of played video games and video game
content. Regarding the aspects of a video game, the study came up with several variables as
Exposure to violent game
The respondents were tasked to list their three preferred video games. It would enable the
researcher to know the extent to which participants are conscious of video games. Consequently,
participants were tasked to quantify the degree of violence depicted on the selected video games
on a 7-point Likert scale (1=‘‘little or no violence’’, 7=‘‘extremely violent’’). Finally, the
ultimate score regarding exposure to violent video games of each participant was calculated by
multiplying the regularity of every game chosen by the degree of fierceness. Besides, the
participants were required to state the level of fierceness they would desire in a video game on a
10-point scale (1=no violence, 10=extreme violence).
The sum of video gameplay.
The participants were asked the duration they took in playing video games and the respective
days of the week when they played most, whether during weekends or weekdays. The weekly
duration for each participant was then calculated.
The hostility of the participants was quantified using the Cook & Medley Hostility Scale. Since
some of the parameters in the scale were inapplicable to the age group of the participants, some
parameters were modified to suit the understanding of the adolescents. It would enhance the
credibility of the study. It would also enhance the capability of researchers to find complete
truthful insights into the participant’s traits.
Participants were asked the frequency with which their parents and guardians monitored the
games they played and whether their parents put any restrictions regarding the game’s age
restrictions and the duration spent playing. Consequently, a parent participation scale was
developed by averaging the occurrences with which guardians and parents put limits on the
duration of playing video games and the degree of parental assessment regarding the age
restrictions of a game.
Arguments with teachers
Respondents were asked the number of times they have gotten into an argument with tutors. The
data was evaluated on a 4-point Likert scale. The results were implicit with higher ratings
indicating higher chances of getting with teachers into an argument and reduce ratings indicating
lower chances of getting into a war of words with the trainers.
Respondents were requested to indicate the performance in school in terms of grades ranging
from A+ through to F. The higher the scores, the higher the grades and the lower the score, the
lower the grade.
Respondents were questioned whether at one time they have been into a contest. The answer was
close to either yes or no.
Subjects (# and who):
The key stakeholders in the study are parents and the students. Parents have a significant role in
influencing the activities an adolescent is involved.in. Among the roles of a parent, is providing
mentorship and promoting good behaviour and traits to his or her children. Parents determine
activities children will have as a hobby by having control in the activities the child can be
On the other hand, adolescents whose mean age is fourteen years old form a vital component of
The study adopted surveying as an effective data collection method. The participants were
sampled from four Midwestern schools. The participants were asked questions based on the
various variables: the content of the video games and the amount of time consumed playing them
plus the impact they had on various aspects such as academic performance. The use of surveying
was applicable for the research because the respondents were many and it would enable the
research have more credible findings since each of the selected participants in the samples had
equal opportunity to share their information. The surveying method may have had challenges
which are not included in the journal. The respondents may have provided inaccurate and
dishonest answers as a result of feeling discouraged or sceptical of the outcome of the responses
The author conducted a study between 4 April and 2 May 2000. The author sought consent from
parents of participating respondents by mailing letters to them. The consent rate was more than
90%. Some teachers also volunteered their classrooms to partake the study. Instances of self-
selection bias were reduced by ensuring each of the contributing classrooms was a compulsory
class. The class instructors were trained on how to manage the anonymous studies to each of the
participants. The anonymity of the surveys would increase the credibility of the data collected.
The examinations were effected during a one class session. Leaners were also made aware that
video games comprised of any game frolicked on electronic devices.
Results and Discussion:
The research found that the consumed time average spent on cinematic games by the age group
is nine hours a week; males spent more hours than females, thirteen hours and five hours,
respectively. Out of the research, only six per cent said they had not played video sports, and
fifty-nine per cent admitted playing at once in seven days. Cumulatively, youths consume much
time playing video games besides other activities. Besides, the respondents preferred moderate
violence with males opting for higher levels of violence than females. The results also showed
that parents’ involvement in their teens’ video game-playing norm is minimal. 23% of students
admitted to having got into arguments with their teachers, male gender were likely to be
aggressive compared to the female gender.
There are various studies which support the findings of the author—stated that too much
involvement in violent video games would ultimately result in an individual being violent in his
or her real life. However, the study is limited to reliance on visual content rather than the type of
violence content. For instance, the violence depicted in animation form may not be practical in
real life. Ultimately, the research advocates for controlled adolescent engagement in violent
video games. It will assist in bringing up a responsible society which is less likely to involve in
violence with the least provocation an adolescent is subjected to.
Violent video games have much precedence on the behaviour an adolescent can have. The earlier
the prevalence can be moderated, the lesser the damage that can be caused. The amount of
consumed time on violent video games positively correlates with an adolescent's ease to engage
in fights and arguments.
The study shows that parents should monitor their children’s leisure activities, especially video
games. They should be able to know the age ratings of violent video sports before permitting
their kids to play. Violent video games is an activity that grows in the mind of a child with time,
and ultimately if not tamed, it will be part of a person’s daily routine activities.
All in all, violent video games are part of an adolescent’s life activities. Therefore, parents
should be able to teach other forms of leisure activities in their children’s lives. They should
foster activities such as reading novels which keeps the child busy and alienates him or her from
the toxic exposure of violent video games.