Based on the DSM-5, there are several psychological disorders associated with
retarded human mental abilities. These psychological/psychiatric disorders include anxiety,
depression, chronic pain syndromes, personality, and eating disorders among others. The
articles "Cognitive behavioral therapy," "Brief Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant Personality
Disorder," and "Cognitive therapy for depression: coping style matters" are essential in
understanding mental disorders.
The rationale for the Topic
The authors of the articles pursued the topic of cognitive therapy for mental disorders
for several reasons. Generally, mental disorders are critically dominant among adults and
children. Due to distress and psychological problems, the cognitive behavioral theory is
therefore essential to address such unhelpful situations and behaviors. Also, the idea of
mental disorder is prevalent and need to be understood. As a result, evidence-based
approaches need to be discovered to address such problems. The topic of cognitive
dysfunction is of significant influence on almost every aspect of life, including education,
business, and leadership. These could be the reasons why the authors chose to address the
The study design is essential in ensuring possible results and findings for any
research. For instance, for the Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD), the author used a single
baseline case experimental design to investigate an innovative strategy of handling APD.
Also, the study applied multiple baseline designs to determine the effects of the new strategy
of treating APD. Also, data collection was conducted through four individualized therapeutic
targets for change (Rees & Pritchard, 2015).
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The research design for “Cognitive therapy for depression: Coping style matters" was
based on the full cognitive Therapy (CT) conditions of the Jacobson and colleagues' study.
Therapy answers generated in the third session were rated to evaluate cognitive errors and
coping. Also, from the study design, change in depression scores generated from the pre-and
post-treatment was conducted (Renaud, Dobson & Drapeau, 2014).
The article on "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy" used a unique study design. The study
has discussed various CBT approaches that clinicians apply in ten-minute consultations along
with case studies and examples. The case studies are used to espouse how such strategies are
implemented in clinical practice (Chawathey & Ford, 2016).
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study Designs
The study designs and methods used in these articles have some strengths and
weaknesses. The use of case studies and specific CBT techniques is potential in research
since it increases the understanding of the roles as well as the power of emotions along its
relevance in the capacity of the mental illness and health. Also, the design assists in the
attainment of good-doctor-patient communication. However, in the application of the CBT in
ten-minute consultations, there is moderately high demand for the patient to be emotionally
prepared and grasp comprehend the concept of CBT at the outset. In most cases, this is not
possible. There is a risk of revealing emotions and beliefs that are challenging to contain in
10-minute consultation (Chawathey & Ford, 2016).
Application of single and multiple baseline cases experimental design is crucial
because it enables the researchers to collect information based on four individualized
therapeutic targets for change. This design methodology potentially applied direct utilization
Cognitive Therapy to every target for change. The approach enables that one target is
addressed after the other. However, there are some limitations or weaknesses for this study
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design. The design allowed only one therapist to evaluate the data outcome and conducted all
the assessment as well as treatment components. As a result, the design presents some issues
with the research validity of the results (Rees & Pritchard, 2015).
According to Chawathey & Ford (2016), CBT assists the patients in identifying
dysfunctional thinking as well as behavioral patterns along with the replacement of them with
the adaptive models. After the identification of the negative beliefs in the human mind,
cognitive distortions, and NAT cascades, suitable CBT approach is implemented. NICE
advocates for the application of CBT without or with treatment modalities in situations of
anxiety, panic, phobias and depression disorders.
As indicated by Rees & Pritchard (2015), brief cognitive therapy is used to treat APD
condition effectively. Also, the research findings suggest that individuals diagnosed with
APD have a high probability of hypersensitivity to the likelihood of negative assessment.
Such hypersensitivity cause inaccurate or inappropriate perceptions and recollections which
encourage distress and early termination.
The findings of Renaud, Dobson & Drapeau, (2014) demonstrates that the
engagement in self-reliance as well as not participating in escape coping strategies implicated
significant decrease in depression levels after cognitive therapy. As a result, engaging in such
types of adaptive coping approaches while avoiding maladaptive coping is significantly
important when it comes to predicting decrement of depression for persons who possess high
levels of a given cognitive error.
Future Implications of the Findings
The findings from these articles have some critical future implications. According to
Renaud, Dobson & Drapeau (2014), it is known that coping approaches are highly esteemed
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tendencies applied for some time now. However, future research is needed to evaluate the
stability of such coping strategies used in this study. Such prospective study has significant
implication for how therapy would take place with people's coping patterns to optimize
Several clinical implications are emerging from Rees & Pritchard (2015) research
study. Findings of this study implicate that clients with a primary diagnosis of Avoidant
Personality Disorder (APD) be provided with interventions targeting their unhelpful
cognitions in the two levels of automatic perceptions and core beliefs.
Chawathey & Ford (2016) research study implicates that in future, the therapists
ought to be conversant with the possibility of revealing deep-seated emotions and suppressed
reoccurrences in the period of therapy and pre-arrange follow up appointments. This would
assist in managing perceptional problems among the therapist’s clients.
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Chawathey, K., & Ford, A. (2016). Cognitive behavioral therapy. InnovAiT, 9(9), 518-523.
Rees, C. S., & Pritchard, R. (2015). Brief cognitive therapy for avoidant personality disorder.
Psychotherapy, 52(1), 45.
Renaud, J., Dobson, K. S., & Drapeau, M. (2014). Cognitive therapy for depression: Coping
style matters. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 14(1), 42-47.