In general geographical differences caused cultural differences among Native Americans. Because of migrating small groups in ice age to survive, each group adopt themselves survive in those weather conditions. This isolation of groups made them to be separated from other groups which results in keeping them from infections and diseases. “The physical isolation of these bands may have protected them from the spread of contagious disease.” (1.1)
Native Americans during the fifteenth through seventeenth
In west Africa, the slaves who been captured in wars were sold to Europeans and taken to the new world. “A slave would be offered to a European trader for so many bars of iron or ounces of gold.”(1.2.1)
The Europeans tried to civilized Native Americans that continuously got rejected from them and many diseases that Europeans brought with them, killed Native Americans which cause to lose their culture. “The survivors lost not only members of their families, but also elders who might have told them how to bury the dead properly and give spiritual comfort to the living.”(1.2.3)
By the end of 1400s Spain was ruled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabela who gave financial backing to Columbus for his new world exploration. This was the start of new world exploration. “Columbus petitioned Isabella and Ferdinand for financial backing.”(1.3)
It looks like French were not interested in settlement but they were more focused on trades. They start to live among the Indians and learn their culture and language because they were dependent of Indian hunters. “Furs were Canada’s most valuable export, and to obtain the pelts of beavers and other animals, the French were absolutely dependent on Indian hunters and trappers. French traders lived among the Indians, often taking native wives and studying local cultures.”(1.5)
2.1) Why did the Chesapeake colonies not prosper during the earlier years of their settlement?
During Elizabeth I’s kingdom the government was not wealthy, and for colonizing in New World money was the major obstruction, no one wanted to invest in colonization. “No single person, no matter how rich or well connected, could underwrite the vast expenses a New World settlement required.”(2.1) though the solution was joint-stock company in which people could invest their money without fearing of bankruptcy.
2.2) How did differences in religion affect the founding of the New England colonies?
Many people migrate to New England because they were persecuted by religion.
The Bay colonists reform a new church government that they were free to choose their own religion. “Simply because a person happened to live in a certain community did not mean he or she automatically belonged to church.” (2.2.3)
People were seeking for religious freedom. “The Puritans never supported religious toleration. They transferred to the New World to preserve their own freedom of worship”(2.2.4)
2.3 How did ethnic diversity shape the development of the middle colonies?
The Dutch stayed in New York and they create their own colonies. “They continued to speak their own language, worship in their own churches (Dutch Reformed Calvinist), and eye their English neighbors with suspicion”(2.3.1)
William Penn who was a Quaker, promised many things inform of government which brought many immigrants to Pennsylvania. “Penn guaranteed that settlers would enjoy, among other things, liberty of conscience, freedom from persecution, no taxation without representation, and due process of law.”(2.3.4)
2.4) How was the founding of the Carolinas different from the founding of Georgia?
In 1670s the Port Royal area was overpopulated and rich people decide to migrate to another land that they can provide their children with lands. They migrate to Carolina and they brought slaves with them too. “Many of whom were rich, traveled to Carolina both as individuals and as family groups. Some even brought gangs of slaves with them to the American mainland.”(2.4.1)
In 1732 King George II create a new colony followed by his name in which slavery and rum was prohibited. They were allowed to have 50 acres land. These rules attract few people to Georgia. “In 1732, King George II granted Oglethorpe and a board of trustees a charter for a new colony named after him to be located between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers and from “sea to sea.””(2.4.2)
3.1 What factors explain the remarkable social stability achieved in early New England?
New Englanders travelled in groups, at that time the ratio of men and women were almost equal, three men to two women so singles would expect to make a family when they settle. “New Englanders crossed the Atlantic within nuclear families. That is, they moved within established units consisting of a father, mother, and their dependent children.”(3.1.1)
Other factor was they lived long life maybe because of pure water and cool climate which helped them to have social stability. “No doubt, pure drinking water, a cool climate that retarded the spread of fatal contagious disease, and a dispersed population promoted good health.”(3.1.1)
Next is New Englanders got themselves a piece of land. “Owning land gave agrarian families a sense of independence from external authority” (3.1.3)
3.2 What factors contributed to political unrest in the Chesapeake region during this period?
Unlike New Englanders, Chesapeakes traveled alone, not with the family and usually they were singles. “. They traveled to the New World as young unmarried servants—youths cut off from the security of traditional kin relations” (3.2.1)
The range of living were too short for Chesapeakes, almost half of New Englanders. “Life expectancy for Chesapeake males was about 43” (3.2.1)
There were no equal ratio for men and women to marry and the economy was also unequal among Chesapeake.
3.3 How did African American slaves preserve an independent cultural identity in the New World?
In some areas because whites were not more in contact with blacks in rice plantations, they start to develop a new language which was not African nor English. “Blacks developed creole languages that mixed basic English vocabulary with words from African languages.”(3.3.2)
They develop new kind of music and folkloric art of Africans and accept Christianity as their religion. “The slaves accepted Christianity but did so on their own terms—terms their masters seldom fully understood.”(3.3.2)
“In music and folk art, they gave voice to a cultural identity that even the most degrading conditions could not eradicate.”(3.3.2)
3.4 Why did England discourage free and open trade in colonial America?
Because England believed the trade success of colonial America will bring loss to England.
“one nation’s commercial success translated directly into a loss for its rivals.”(3.4.1) They made several regulations that made merchants to pay customs and also they were not allowed to sell goods directly to other European powers. The name of that legislation was Navigation Act which finally in year 1700 merchants found it profitable for them and accepted it. “Parliament passed the Navigation Act of 1673. This statute established a plantation duty, a sum of money equal to normal English customs duties to be collected on enumerated products at the various colonial ports”(3.4.1)
4.1 What difficulties did Native Americans face in maintaining their cultural independence on the frontiers of English and Spanish settlement?
The first difficulty was the diseases that European brought with them. Other difficulty that they face was the trades that new generation was doing with France and England without having permission of the Native American leaders. Next was marrying Spanish males with Indian women and having a mixed generation. “because European women rarely appeared on the frontier, Spanish males formed relationships with Indian women, fathering mestizos, children of mixed race.”(4.1.5)
4.2 How did European ideas affect eighteenth-century American life?
Enlightenments brought some new ideas about religion and God and science. Benjamin Franklin was one of the Enlightenments who invented lightening rod. Economic transformation also helped Americans to grow more population and trade with West Indies. Modern generation of men and women were more consumers than producers, “Eighteenth-century colonists purchased most household goods in stores” (4.2.4)
4.3 How did the Great Awakening transform the religious culture of colonial America?
The Great Awakening began in 1730s in New England. Colonists learned that they do not need to keep silent and they need to speak up. They learned slavery is a sin and they should not wait for the ministers to act. One of the religions that was born in Great Awakening was Evangelical religion. There were many popular voices at that time like, Gilbert Tennent and Jonathan Edwards. People start to hope with this religion they will have better future. “They believed that with God’s help, social and political progress was possible” (4.3.2)
4.5 Why did colonial Americans support Great Britain’s wars against France?
When the conflict on ruling Ohio River valley raised between Britain and France, Iroquois were allies with Britain. Because France was not a threat for Iroquois and also they had allies in Ohio River valley, they decided to join Britain which ended in Seven Year War. William Pitt was the most powerful minister in King Georgia’s cabinet who won the war by selecting two young officers named Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe. “Pitt selected two relatively obscure officers, Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe. It was a masterful choice, one that a less self-assured man would never have risked. Both officers were young, talented, and ambitious.” (4.5.3)
5.1 Why did Americans resist parliamentary taxation?
“As John Adams insisted, a representative assembly should mirror its constituents: “It should think, feel, reason, and act like them.” Since the members of Parliament could not possibly “think” like Americans, it followed logically they could not represent them.” (5.1)
5.2 What events eroded the bonds of empire during the
To pay off the national debt Britain decided to pass the sugar act then after that they passed the stamp act and then Townshend act then Boston Massacre happened and at the end they passed the Tea act.
5.3 What events in 1775 and 1776 led to the colonists’ decision to declare independence?
After all of the passed acts from Britain, Americans felt they are paying too much taxes and it is time to be a united country and declare for independency. Britain closed all ports in 1774 and in reaction to that Americans boycott the British goods. In 1775 they passed Prohibitory Act in which “Declares British intention to coerce Americans into submission; embargo on American goods; American ships seized” (5.3.2) which caused to “Drives Continental Congress closer to decision for independence” (5.3.2)
5.4 Why did it take eight years of warfare for the Americans to gain independence?
Because the population of Britain was four times more than Americans and also they were trained for war it took eight years for Americans to gain independency. “Britain’s population was perhaps four times that of its colonies. Britain also possessed a strong manufacturing base, a well-trained regular army supplemented by thousands of German mercenaries (Hessians), and a navy that dominated the seas. Many British officers were battlefield veterans.”(5.4)
In 1777 after French allied Americans finally they overcome British.
6.1 What were the limits of equality in the “republican” society of the new United States?
“The distribution of wealth in postwar America was more uneven than it had been in the mid-eighteenth century.”(6.1.1)
“Landholder either to pass his entire estate to his eldest son or to declare that his property could never be divided, sold, or given away” (6.1.1)
Still there were slavery and though African-Americans were trying to gain their rights as equal to white Americans, “they rarely enjoyed access to education” (6.1.2).
“Even in the churches—institutions that had often attacked slavery—free African Americans were denied equal standing with white worshippers.”(6.1.2)
Women were not equal with men, “Fathers could treat wives and children however they pleased” (6.1.3)
6.2 Why did many Americans regard the Articles of Confederation as inadequate?
Because national government and congress did not have enough power, “The result was a government that many people regarded as powerless.” (6.2.1)
6.3 Why did constitutional delegates compromise on representation and slavery?
They made two house congress. House of Representatives which would be based on the state population and The Senate would represent the state. Each state would have two senators elected by their state.
6.4 What issues separated Federalists from Anti-Federalists during debates over ratification?
Federalists wanted to ratify the Constitution but Anti-Federalists argued that the Constitution gave too much power to the Federal government and they were worry that too much power was taken away from states. “ “In so extensive a republic,” one Anti-Federalist declared, “the great officers of government would soon become above the control of the people, and abuse their power.”” (6.4.1)
7.1 Why was George Washington unable to overcome division within the new government?
Even though George Washington was so popular in America he could not make good relation between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, they had two different visions about new government. “However much these two men had in common, serious differences emerged. Washington’s secretaries disagreed on how the United States should fulfill its destiny” (7.1.2)
7.2 Why did many Americans oppose Alexander Hamilton’s blueprint for national prosperity?
Many ordinary citizens, farmers and former soldiers agreed that Hamilton’s plan would be good only for un-Americans and un-republicans. After bankruptcies in 1792, people start to understand what Jefferson and Madison were saying about the blueprint. Also they oppose the plan of Bank of the United States and doctrine of implied power may lead the power to the government. “Making money without physical labor appeared immoral, un-republican, and un-American” (7.2.2)
7.3 How did foreign affairs affect domestic politics during the 1790s?
Republicans wanted to be on France side and Federalists who urged a strong national government were with Britain’s central economic planning. “In FEBRUARY 1793, France declared war on Britain – what the leaders of revolutionary France called the “war of all people against all kings.”” (7.3.1) When France declare or war on Britain, both Hamilton and Jefferson wanted to avoid war and become neutral but Britain changed its policy on neutral trading on American ships and then Washington send Jay to negotiate but he failed. This failure cause a huge protest between republicans and Federalists.
7.4 Why was it hard for Americans to accept political dissent as a part of political activity?
In the 1790s, Americans believed political parties might lead to a conspiracy to overthrow the legitimately elected government and also because American unity was lost during the revolution any opposition had to be eliminated by any means. “Even as members of congress voted as Republicans or Federalists, they condemned the rising partisan spirit as a threat to the stability of the United States.” (7.4.1)
8.1 How did the republic’s growth shape the market economy and relations with Native Americans?
During Jefferson’s presidency, more population start to move to Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They start to produce crops of tobacco, rice, and cotton to sell on the European market. When they saw Native Americans do not want to leave their lands they start to push them aside. “Tecumesh rejected classification as a Shawnee and may have been the first native leader to identify himself self-consciously as “Indian”.” (8.1.1) Richard Johnson of Kentucky killed Tecumesh.
8.2 How did practical politics challenge Jefferson’s political principles?
Jefferson had some specific goals as a president. “Reduce the size and cost of Federal government, repeal obnoxious federalist legislation such as the Alien Acts, and maintain international peace.” (8.2) Also he wanted to make Florida and Louisiana as part of United states and instead of war with France he negotiate with them and they offered to sell Louisiana, so before purchasing Louisiana he sent Lewis and Clark to explore the west.
8.3 How did Jeffersonians deal with the difficult problems of party politics and slavery?
Jefferson wanted to end Federalists control of the judiciary so he impeached the Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase which embarrassed the administration. Then he signed into law a bill called The Slave Trade which almost no one was happy with that. “The law prohibited importing slaves into the United States after January 1, 1808.” (8.3.3)
8.4 Why did the United States find it difficult to avoid military conflict during this period?
Because Britain and France went in war in 1805, they wanted US to be into sides. Because Jefferson knew his country was weak in navy, he supported the Embargo Act, which closed American ports to foreign commerce. This angered New Englanders. “The president predicted that a total embargo of American commerce would soon force Britain and France to negotiate with the United States in good faith” (8.4.4)
9.1 How did U.S policymakers acquire land for settlement from foreign governments and Indian nations?
“U.S citizens, eager to expand into lands held by Indian nations and Spain, used diplomacy, military action, force, and fraud to “open” lands for settlement and westward migration” (9.1)
First they occupied part of Florida which was Spanish lands then Spain relinquished Florida in 1819. At that time Indians copy some of white’s attitudes and they were keeping slaves so Americans ask them to become civilized or leave the lands. Some changed their culture and some left their lands to keep their culture. “Also congress formally acknowledged the right to farm on public lands with the assurance of a future preemption right” (9.1.2) Then they get in 2 wars called Seminoles war which was basically between whites and African slaves who were settled with Indians. “This, you may be assured is a negro and not an Indian war.”(9.1.4)
9.2 How did developments in transportation support the growth of agriculture and manufacturing?
Roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads gave access to farmers and manufacturers to national market. Farmers start to grown plants for sell not for themselves and industries turn cotton into clothing.
“Stem transport reduced costs, moved goods and people faster, and allow a two way commerce on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.”(9.2.1)
“The emerging exchange network encouraged movement away from diversified farming and toward regional concentration on staple crops.”(9.2.2)
“The shift in textile manufacturing from domestic to factory production also shifted the locus of women’s economic activity.”(9.2.3)
9.3 What political, institutional, and diplomatic developments increased the power of the federal government during the late 1810s and early 1820s?
The government decided what states would be allow to have slavery, also what are the supreme court’s duties and functionality, and how United States will deal with European powers.
The Missouri Compromise established the 36°30′ line dividing slave states from free states.
“In February 1820, the senate passed the Missouri Compromise, voting to couple the admission of Missouri as a slave state with the admission of Maine as a free state.” (9.3.1) With the help of John Marshall who was the chief justice in the United states the Court became the supreme constitutional interpreter. The Monroe Doctrine explain that the United States and European powers such as Britain or French should each control their respective hemispheres and United States will not interfere in European national problems. “what came to known as the Monroe Doctrine solemnly declared that the United States opposed further colonization in the Americas or any effort by European nations to extend their political systems outside their own hemisphere.” (9.3.3)
9.4 How did the United States become a larger, more populous, more connected, and more economically successful country between 1790 and 1830?
By using Native Americans and European nations territories United States expanded more and with more land and more food the size of American family increased. Though there were no more slavery trades from outside, slave population also start grow due to rise in births and expanded to new territories. These expansions in population made the country economically successful.
10.1 How did the relationship between the government and the people change during this time?
In this period of democracy government was on “popular sovereignty” which meant rich people with modest backgrounds can get better positions but the cultural expression decline this.
“One example of this was the decline of distinctive modes of dress for upper and lower classes.” (10.1.1)
In this period theater became more popular and many political issues were express with plays in theater. Public opinion was divided over the role of government in the economy. “The question was whether the government should actively support commerce and industry or stay out of the economy in the name of laissez-faire and free competition.” (10.1.3)
10.2 What political conflicts did President Andrew Jackson face and how did he resolve them?
One thing that Jackson did for the first time in United States, he change his whole cabinet and also he remove all Native Americans from their homeland. He also threatened South Carolina with militia force during the nullification crisis.
“Midway through his first administration, however, Jackson did replace almost all of his original cabinet appointees” (10.2.1)
“The major policy question facing the Jackson administration concerned the fate of Native Americans” (10.2.2)
10.3 What were the arguments for and against the Bank of the United States?
President Jackson believed the federal bank is unconstitutional and saw it as a personal enemy and monster corporation while Nicholas Biddle the president of the bank believed that the Bank of the US was essential to American economic stability. “After repeating his opinion that the Bank was unconstitutional, notwithstanding a ruling by the Supreme Court, he argued that it violated the fundamental rights of the people in a democratic society” (10.3.1)
People who were on Biddle’s side were thinking Jackson exceeded his constitutional authority and new party raised as the Whigs. “Clay and his supporters contended that the president had violated the Bank’s charter and exceeded his constitutional authority when he removed the deposits.” (10.3.2)
10.4 What was the two-party system, and how ere the parties different?
“In the Whig camp were industrialists who wanted tariff protection, merchants who favored internal improvements to simulate commerce, and farmers and planters who had adapted to a market economy” (10.4.1)
Democratic were smaller farmers, low wage workers and free thinkers. They believed in religion diversity and different lifestyle and market economy they were also believed in equality and personal liberty.
11.1 How did the experience of enslaved people vary across time and place?
It was different from region to region. In the Cotton Belt they were working from sunup to sundown, six days a week. Working in “trash gangs”, weeding and yard cleaning. Slaves in south Carolina and Georgia were doing “task system” with less supervision and they could finish their tasks in eight hours. In small farms they were working side to side with their masters. Others were field workers “they dug ditches, built houses, worked on boats and in mills, and were house servants, cooking, cleaning and gardening.” (11.1.1) some also worked in cities in restaurants or hotels.
Family was making slave life easier, while some slaves resisted oppression by armed rebellion or ran away. Just before the Civil War, southern whites proposed forcing free people of color to choose to leave the state or be enslaved.
11.2 What divided and united white southern society?
There were some whites that did not have slaves, some planters have more slaves than their share of high offices. Though there were many whites with few or no slaves, but white supremacy united them with large slaveholders. Yomen farmers worked themselves in their lands. White farmers were afraid of abolition and that blacks can compete in work and land with them.
11.3 How was slavery related to economic success in the United States?
In Southern states cotton was rely on slavery and slavery was growing. Tobacco was the main plantation crop for upper south but because it was usually in depression, little by little cotton override tobacco. Who had more slaves was wealthier in the cotton business and “small slaveholders and non-slaveholders shared only to a limited extent in the bonanza profits of the cotton” (11.3.2)
11.4 What developments shaped the history of American slavery in the first half of the nineteenth century?
The banned of international slave trade in 1808 did not save the slaves from being trade in United States and the trades started internally from upper South to lower South. The plantations of cotton, sugar, rice and tobacco in the Southern states was rely on slaves so trading slaves became a new business in South.
12.1 How did the evangelical revivalism of the early nineteenth century spur reform movements?
There were different movements such as Sunday school movement, the temperance movement, prison and school reform movements, and the abolitionist movement in all of these movements the most important was the temperance movement which was banning drinking alcohol which could target lower classes. “In New England, Beecher and his evangelical associates established a network of missionary and benevolent societies.” (12.1.3)
12.2 What was the ideology of “separate spheres,” and how was it different from the reality of household life?
Role of women were taking care of family and home, guarding religious and moral values. Men’s role was to earn money and participate in politics. “ in particular, the view that women had a special role to play in the domestic sphere as guardians of virtue and spiritual heads of the home has been described as the Cult of Domesticity.”(12.2)
Smaller families had more leisure time and middle-class families were emphasized on children’s development.
12.3 What were some of the major antebellum reform movements?
The abolitionist movement, black abolitionists, abolitionism to women’s right.
Black abolitionists were demanding to for fair equal rights “we pledge our integrity to use all honorable means, to unite us, as one people, on this continent.” (12.3.2)
Abolitionism to women’s right was about for women to have voting right and also married women freed from bad behavior of their husbands. “all women be given the right to vote and that married women be freed from unjust laws giving husbands control of their property, persons, and children.” (12.3.3)
12.4 Where did the Second Great Awakening have its greatest effects?
It was Christian revived movement in 1790s. The Great Awakening influenced also other aspects such as the women’s rights movement, prison reform, abolishment of slavery, advancements in literature and education. (I am using 3rd edition and I do not have 12.4)
13.1 Why did the United States annex Texas and the Southwest?
As Utah, Texas, and Arizona were part of Mexico, Americans saw those lands cheap and the hunger of land brought them to the point to annex Texas from Mexico and make it an independent state. Mexico wanted to keep Texas and did not want to bring slavery to Texas and this was happening when Van Buren was running for presidential election. As he afraid from causing war with Mexico his opponents block his nomination. “He persisted in the view he had held as president incorporating Texas would risk war with Mexico, arouse sectional strife, and destroy the unity of the Democratic Party.” (13.1.3) James Polk became President and United States annex Texas immediately as they believed Texas was the manifest destiny of United States.
13.2 How did developments in transportation foster industrialization and encourage immigration?
Railroad have important role in American economy during the 1840s. As canals were slow, people preferred the fast trains and they were able to transfer goods faster. Also as railroad needed iron, they start using domestic iron which also helped economy and at last railroad companies start to sell stock to the public. “They also developed new types of securities, such as “preferred stock” and long-term bonds at a set rate of interest.” (13.2.1)
13.3 How did westward expansion lead to conflict with other nations and cause domestic conflict over the expansion of slavery in new territories?
Expansions carried slavery down into the Southwest, into Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Then in 1840’s it reach into Texas. The expansion of slavery was a big political issue in 1850’s.
13.4. What do you notice about the painting? What does it tell us about the painter’s ideas about Manifest Destiny? Does it perhaps shed some light on mid-19th century American attitudes towards Manifest Destiny?
In the painting there are Native Americans running away from their region and there are some new settlers in the back. In the right corner there are farmers which indicates the life style of Americans at that time. And that angel is holding wires and polls for railroad as she flies the railroad continues to follow her, which is a spiritual meaning of following a higher level. This way of transportation from walking to railroad shows the development in moving from one point to the other which can also shows the attitudes of Americans on mid-19th century about Manifest Destiny.
14.1 How did territorial expansion intensify the conflict over slavery?
The constitution did not permit the federal government to override state slavery laws. “The constitution gave the federal government the right to abolish the international slave trade but no authority to regulate or destroy the institution here it existed under state law.”(14.1.1) this rise the question for slavery in different states. Wilmot Proviso tried to ban slavery in Mexico but he failed but still California remained as a free state while the Fugitive Slave Act appeased the South.
14.2 How did the two-party system change during this period?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act sought to repeal the Missouri Compromise while the Whig candidate lost in 1852 for supporting the antislavery cause, this gave rise to Republicanism, which adhered to native Protestant values while supporting development in the West and opposing slavery. “the Know-Nothing party split over the Kansas-Nebraska issue in 1856, most northern nativists became Republicans.” (14.2.3) the 1856 election was largely a choice between rivals, one northern and one southern.
14.3 What were the final events leading up to southern secession, and how did they reveal the profound divide between North and South?
Slavery caused American society separate culturally, morally and legally. Some religious congregations believed slavery is sin. “Northern preachers and congregations denounced slaveholding as a sin” (14.3.1) Many literature expressed the sentiments of slaveholding. Dred Scott decision stripped American blacks free and slave alike of most legal rights. Then Lincoln the elected president opposed slavery and said freedom is human right.
14.4 How did conflict over slavery divide America along geographical and political lines in the mid-nineteenth century?
After Mexican-American War, new territories from Mexican cession, combined with territories from Louisiana Purchase, made more conflict over the expansion of slavery. Compromises were created to address the view of the both North and the South, but the compromise ultimately failed and Lincoln won the presidency in 1860 without any electoral support from the South. (3rd edition does not have this part).
15.1 What developments and events drew the Union toward civil war?
The end result saw Lincoln becoming thr president and the Crittenden Compromise never passed at all (15.1.1). The democrat Lincoln’s election made secession of 7 states and cooperationist” was defeated-On the other hand, republicans rejected compromise on question of slavery in new states and Lincoln resolved to use force if the South strike first- Fort Sumter, they did-
15.2 What challenges did “total war” bring for each side?
For those on the South, the war resulted into famine while the people on the north were very much well off in a number of ways. Total war signified that there would be no cease fire till southern separationists were defeated. At the same time, the North had larger population, heavy industry and agriculture was better suited for long conflict (15.2.2). On the other hand, the South struggled to feed self and didn’t have wealth, but the South was closest to battlefield and country’s best army schools therefore, Lincoln maintained northern unity
15.3 How did the Union finally attain victory, and what role did emancipation play in it?
Lincoln allowed the slaves who were in the South to be free and the free blacks as well joined the union with the aim to defeat the blacks (15.3.1). Lincoln saw the strategic benefit of opposing slavery, so he declared the freedom of slaves in unoccupied areas in Emancipation Proclamation. Blacks escaped slavery and went straight to join the Union army (which helped them win). Union victories helped reelect Lincoln
15.4 How did the outcome of the war affect America socially and politically?
After the war many women pushed for more work outlets beyond those that were traditionally female roles because they had helped during the war. Immigrants were hoping for less discrimination since they were in the war. A stable dollar was created and the government enacted programs to remake America.
16.1 What conflicts arose consecutively involving President Johnson and Congress during Reconstruction?
Both Lincoln and Johnson had their own notions of how reconstruction should be governed. The radical republicans who sought more protection for black rights challenged Lincoln’s ten percent plan (16.1.2). Sometimes later, when Johnson hesitated to renew the Freedmen’s bureau and fight the black codes, congress passed the fourteenth amendment to ensure equal right to all Americans.
16.2 What problems did southern society face during Reconstruction?
The immediate problems facing the South were economic and physical devastation, and providing for the mass of freed slaves. While former slaveholders hoped to reduce ex-slaves to conditions, not unlike slavery; northern Republicans wanted to reorganize southern land and labor on a northern free-labor model. Freedmen’s Bureau agents emphasized that ex-slaves had to sign contracts and work for wages (16.2.3). The freed slaves hoped instead to own land. Sharecropping was a compromise
16.3 Why did Reconstruction end?
In as much as Reconstruction was intended to protect civil rights, the 15th amendment allowed states to limit local suffrage through difficult voting prerequisites. In addition to this, the government intimidated black voters and representation. By 1876 these tactics had defeated the republicans in most southern states and reconstruction was nearly dead (16.3.3). This was the time around which Reconstruction ended.
16.4 Who benefited and who suffered from the reconciliation of the North and South?
The Africans were the people who suffered most as a result of the Union between the North and the South (16.4.1). The reunion came at the expense of African Americans. The Compromise of 1877 restored autonomous government in the South to resolve the 1876 election. The north would no longer enforce unpopular civil rights, allowing the Redeemers to bring back laissez-faire economics and restore white supremacy through the Jim Crow laws.