Numerous theories try to explain the development of a child, and some prevalent theories
are the theory of the psychosexual stages by Freud Sigmund. Another prevailing theory that
explains developmental psychology is Jean Piaget's theory. The development of a child is
determined by numerous factors, both innate and external, influenced by the surrounding
environment (Santrock 2002). Evolution is both a factor brought about by nature and nurture.
The existence of a problem in the development process of a child is often caused by their
incapacity to reconcile with the surrounding environment. For instance, a troublesome child may
be trying to get attention from the parents by being rebellious, for example, in Tony, a twenty-
year-old who is currently engaged in drug abuse and is very rebellious at school, which presently
gets him into trouble with the school administration. His parents now view the substance abuse
problem as a significant problem for them and would wish to solve them very soon. However,
this paper focuses on analyzing Ben, Adrienne's twin, who is currently nine years old. The paper
will analyze Ben's condition and the influences surrounding his challenges academically,
socially, and developmentally and provide proposals on how to solve them.
Ben’s Development Challenges
Ben is currently challenged in the aspects of development socially and academically compared
to Adrienne, his twin. Despite growing in the same environment with his sister, Ben struggles
with situations his sister is not. This is a clear indication that the challenge is facing is not
external, but instead he cannot acclimatize to the external environment that is severely affecting
him. Ben's moral development received a lot of input from his parents before they divorced. His
parents, we have put a lot of involvement interview what place the very few demands or controls
to govern his behavior (Nurkholida 2018). This significantly caused malnourishment in his
cognitive deficits, which grow around this time, according to Jean Piaget, who dubs the stage,
"Concrete Operational Stage." Within this stage, Children gain much more in-depth and
substantial concrete capacities (Mukminin 2017). They have basic rules of understanding, but
they begin to be in a position to process many thoughts, including decentering information. They
fully understand the possibility of principles applying to multiple scenarios. The solution for this
problem lies with the parents, who will need to involve the child in discussions on a wide variety
of topics and, therefore, unable to open up his mind. The parents should also get the child into
sharing ideas and thoughts on what they are experiencing, which can enable them to tackle issues
that may limit their cognitive development. This will go a long way in changing Ben's situation
and encouraging him to be more successful in his education.
Comparison of Challenges among Stages of Development
Justin is the youngest at four years old and is currently lagging in development. Compared to
Ben, Justin seems not to have a lot of attention from his parents, and this may be the reason as to
why he's lagging developmentally. If the parents take no action to resolve this, it may be carried
over to the child's future age. At 20 years old, Tony is struggling with rebellion and substance
abuse, which is giving a lot of worry to his parents. Compared to Ben, he has reached and gone
over and beyond his teenage years, but he's still trying to draw attention to himself through
engaging in rebellious behavior. This is a characteristic that is mainly influenced by his age as an
Multicultural Challenges and Plan of Action
Ben Is facing a crisis in terms of Culture because he comes from his Mom's former marriage,
and he's now supposed to adjust to the new family, which has an interracial composition.
Whereas he was the center of attention in the previous family to the point of his family
overindulging him, he is currently facing very little attention from the father and the mother. His
stepfather certainly does not focus on him a lot since he has a 20-year-old unruly child who is
abusing drugs (Mukminin 2017). Also, the mother has a more prominent family to focus on,
including Justin, who is the youngest in the family. Ben is facing a significant crisis due to the
Culture of the new family in which is in with a multiracial composition but also one whereby he
is not receiving all the attention as he was used to. Upon realizing this problem, the parents
should look for ways to better and get all the children and provide them with sufficient attention.
They should engage them in sharing ideas and allowing them to open up about the challenges
and problems they are currently facing and the appropriate solutions that they can apply to solve
Ben's challenges Emanate from overindulgence by his parents, whereby he experienced a lot of
attention from his parents. However, the parents are currently dealing with a much more
significant problem or Tony, who is rebellious in school and is presently under substance abuse.
Ben, being at the cognitive development stage as per Jean Piaget's theory, has not had an
opportunity to engage in mind developing ideas, and this has limited his cognitive development.
Ben's sister, Adrienne, has adjusted well to the new family and has excellent performance at
school, which shows that Ben's problem is somewhat innate.
Mukminin, M. (2017). A Walk to Remember by Nicholas Sparks Viewed from the Perspective
of Freudian Psychosexual Development Theory. SKRIPSI Jurusan Sastra Inggris-
Fakultas Sastra UM.
Nurkholida, E. (2018). Developing authentic material of listening on higher education based on
constructive learning of Jean Piaget and Vygotsky's theory. OKARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan
Sastra, 12(1), 59-74.
Santrock, J. W. (2002). Life-span development.