The construction industry uses 3D printing to create construction components or to print
entire buildings. 3D printing at a construction scale will have a wide variety of applications
within a private, commercial, industrial, and public sector
technology include faster construction, lower labor cost, increased accuracy, greater integration
of function, and less waste produced, which will enable Discount Services L.L.C. to build new
houses in Mississippi rapidly. Market research indicates that 3D printing in the construction
industry dramatically reduces production time; therefore, saving on costs, which encourages
companies to implement 3D construction printers. Discount Services L.L.C. DBA DM
Contracting plans to buy either E25-25H10, E35-35H10 or E44-35H10 models of a 3D concrete
printer from Mudbots Inc.
Discount Services L.L.C. is a United States-based construction company. The company
plans to use 3D construction printers and work with realtors to rapidly build new subdivisions.
We will be the very first company to provide customers with houses using this technology in
Mississippi. Discount Services L.L.C. will provide customers with houses that will withstand
hurricanes on the MS Gulf Coast and affordable houses in rural Mississippi at recording speed
using never before available technology. We will be able to corner the market with rapid and
dependable constructions at a very affordable rate for outstanding profits. At Discount Services
L.L.C., our clients' best interest is crucial to our business, and our values and professional ethics
will guide us. We will hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by giving shelter to
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 6
homeless people and generally building more sustainable habitats.
Discount Services L.L.C. competes in the construction industry, which highly depends on
high expertise in architecture. The use of additive manufacturing technologies in the construction
industry has increased remarkably during the past years because it expedites and eases the
construction of houses. Additive manufacturing technologies are opening new opportunities in
terms of production paradigm and manufacturing possibilities.
3D printing technologies have sparked a new industrial revolution in the construction
field because of their wide range of models and designs. The technology enables one to make
customized designs without incurring any cost penalties construction, as neither tools nor molds
are required. Also, additive manufacturing enables the production of complex and integrated
functional systems in a one-step process. As a result, they are potentially reducing production
waste and costs. Success factors for 3D printing construction are; sustainable construction
projects with low environmental impact, service, quality, and price. Discount Services L.L.C.
believes that hard-earned money is best spent, whenever possible, on well-made products
produced by entrepreneurs, makers, and innovators.
The technology has seen a significant increase in popularity in recent years with many
new companies, including some backed by prominent names from the construction industry. This
technology has led to several important milestones, such as the first 3D printed building, the first
3D printed bridge, and the first 3D printed part in a public building. For the following five-year
plans, analysts expect the market to grow on average at 24% CAGR, reaching $3.0B by 2024
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 7
and doubling in size approximately every three years. However, external variable factors could
lead to growth as low as 20% or as high as 28% in 2024. The continuing advancement in 3D
Printing has opened up new opportunities for end-use and mass customization applications to
companies such as Discount Services L.L.C.
We are not ignorant that there are growing competitions in the construction industry, which is
why we plan to purchase 3D construction printers from Mudbots to ensure the rapid building of
houses. Being in the construction industry, we will keep tabs on new trends and products that are
always coming up in the industry. In the construction industry, there is a wide range of both
corporate and individual clients who will need our affordable housing in MS Gulf Coast and
surrounding areas, which form our primary market segment. We will ensure that we develop
strategic pacts with corporate organizations, which will give our company several options to
generate revenue, for instance, we have already secured a contract to construct 50 houses on 50
separate lots which we can provide.
Although the competition in this industry is high, the fact that using 3D printing is profitable,
and enjoys strong demand from construction sectors means that clients will only purchase
our products if they know that they can get only the best. In line with this, we are aware that
to be highly competitive in the industry, we not only expect to deliver consistent and high-
quality designs, but we must be able to meet set targets. Our competitive advantage lies in
the fact we are the very first company to use a 3D construction printer to provide customers
with houses that will withstand hurricanes on the MS Gulf Coast and affordable housing in
rural Mississippi. Also, the ability of 3D construction printers to be fast, reduce labor costs,
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 8
production wastes, and production time, and ability not to use additional tooling.
1. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
1.1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The business will operate and be managed by Darly Moody and Steven East. Steven East
is an AOBTA Certified Asian Bodywork and QiGong practitioner, in his fourth year for a
Master's of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and set to graduate in December and start the
Doctoral Program with a 3.8 GPA. He is also a former sheet metal mechanic, plumber, and
brick mason who walked away from a career in Project Management to learn medicine.
Daryl Moody aside from being the leader of Discount Services LLC has also served the
community as the impetus for the organization STRYVE which works to teach the trades to
convicted felons while they serve time in federal halfway houses and help them achieve
licensure upon release. Steven East also has a Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of
Southern Ms in Business Administration and Spanish. He is owner of K&M Cleaning
Services LLC of Ms and Texas. We look forward to revamping Discount Services L.L.C.
service delivery activities, increase its target clients, and consequently generate more
1.2. INVOLVEMENT OF THE COMPANY
The company is in the construction industry and will be involved in using 3D Printers to
provide customers with houses that will withstand hurricanes on the MS Gulf Coast and
affordable houses in rural Mississippi at recording speed using never before available
technology. Discount will purchase a 3D construction printer from Mudbots Inc., and work
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 9
with realtors to rapidly build new subdivisions. We have already secured a contract to
construct 50 houses on 50 separate lots which we can provide. We need: 3D Printers, land
owners, realtors, luxury hurricane proof home buyers (We would literally be able to print the
Taj Mahal), and charitable organizations like Habitat for humanity.
Use of 3D construction printers by Discount is deliberate in transforming competence,
maximize client satisfaction, growth, and development, as well as improve on production,
service delivery, and performance, among other benefits. This will, in return, improve 3D
printing constructions designs and models, maximize profits, and allow expansion in the
future. Our target clients will be individuals in the Ms Gulf Coast and surrounding areas.
1.3. NATURE OF THE BUSINESS
The business will run under the management of Darly Moody and Steven East because of the
They have knowledge and skills in 3D printing for the construction industry.
A highly experienced team in the construction of 3D printed houses
Possess high expertise decision making required for the business.
1.4. NAME OF THE BUSINESS
The business is named DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING
1.5. BUSINESS LOCATION AND ADDRESS
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM will be set up in Mississippi.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 10
The business will operate under the following address
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING
1.6. COMMENCEMENT OF BUSINESS OPERATIONS
The management is familiar with 3D printing for the construction industry, and the business will
commence as soon as all plans are complete.
Mississippi experiences hurricanes most of the times. Most houses in Mississippi cannot
withstand these harsh conditions brought by hurricanes and many people end up loosing their
homes. Trying to solve this problem has created an opportunity for Discount Services L.L.C.
Discount Services L.L.C. wants to provide customers with houses that will withstand hurricanes
on the MS Gulf Coast and affordable housing in rural Mississipi at record speed using never
before available technology.
Business rules and regulations
Discount Services L.L.C. uses these rules:
i. Quality products are of prime concern to Discount Services L.L.C.
ii. Competence is crucial to client contentment.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 11
iii. A better understanding of the clients and their needs is paramount.
iv. Ensure client satisfaction by fulfilling their needs and solving their problems or offer
the best advice.
Discount Services L.L.C. falls under the Construction Industry, which is rapidly growing due to
technological advancement, decreasing costs, and new uses for 3D printing technology. 3D
Printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three-dimensional object is
created by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers offer product constructors the
ability to build houses with less production time and cost, and minimal construction errors.
Future of the industry
Rapid technological development, declining costs, and new applications for 3D printing
technology are the primary drivers of this industry. Over the coming years, industry revenue will
increase at an annualized rate of 25.5% to 3.7 billion U.S. Dollars, including estimated growth of
19.6%. The growing demand for construction using 3D Printers has increased over the years and
provides an opportunity for Discount Services L.L.C. Profits in this industry are so high because
cost of constructing a home will be under 30,000 for all but vast luxury homes and structures can
be completed within one week which allows room for expansion of Discount in future.
1.8. GROWTH STRATEGY
Growth is being driven primarily by the growing technological advancement, decreasing cost,
and new applications for 3D printing technology. Discount Services L.L.C. will grow through
the construction of high-quality homes using 3D printers, a wide variety of materials like cement,
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 12
sand, and lime, and employment of skilled and well knowledgeable staff. By using 3D printing,
our clients will be able to purchase high-quality homes and experience increased better service
1.9. JUSTIFICATION OF THE BUSINESS
The research carried on the area justifies the suitability of Mississippi for the intended
construction of homes using 3D Printers. This is due to the following reasons;
i. Demand: There is high and on the rising market for homes constructed using 3D
printers in the area.
ii. Technology: Technological advancement has necessitated the use of 3D Printers in
the construction industry in the area.
iii. Hurricanes: There is a significant need for homes that can withstand hurricanes in the
MS Gulf Coast due to the frequently experienced hurricanes in the area.
2.9.1 Critical Success Factors
The crucial factors for success in the industry are:
Location: Clients can differentiate Discount Services L.L.C. with ease from others in Mississippi
because Discount is the first company in Mississippi to construct houses using 3D printers.
Service factors: One of the primary drivers of excellent service by Discount Services L.L.C. is
constructing and building high-quality houses using 3D printers of new designs and models.
Client remote support: Our technical support team is ready 24/7 to serve the clients' needs any
way they can.
Price: Price is an essential factor that clients consider in affirming the general value of a product.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 13
We plan to offer a full bundled solution to potential home buyers as we have the means to
complete the entire home building process with HVAC, Electrical, plumbing included, and
luxury homes coming with lifetime guarantees, all at an affordable price.
Technology: Discount will use 3D prinetrs which can be moved 100 yards without deassembling
and reassembling with wheels option and can print basement and multi-story from Mudbots Inc.
Annual sales and market sale
To estimate annual sales Discount Services, L.L.C. will use the following steps:
Step 1: Determine the number of yearly clients Discount Services L.L.C. will have.
Discount Services L.L.C.'s target is 30% of United States clients within 12 months of operation.
Step 2: Based on the 30% of clients, what will Discount Services L.L.C.'s annual sale be?
We are projecting 30% growth at the end of 2020, followed by a 45 % growth after that.
The company will generate income in the following way:
Primary 3D printing construction.
2.9.2 Marketing Objectives
Create strong brand recognition with a transcultural approach towards using 3D
printing for construction.
Set up a steady defensive position in the construction industry;
Keep a high level of client service distinction
GOALS OF THE BUSINESS
a) Increase profit and satisfy clients' needs
b) Attain clients' allegiance
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 14
a) Give the best quality products and services to our clients
b) To become the leading 3D printing for a construction company in the United States
c) To increase company growth by 45%.
2. MARKETING PLAN
The industry is opening up to increase sales going forward because as 3D printing for
construction technologies have advanced, 3D printed houses have moved absolutely outside the
research and development arena and onto the production line. These crucial processes are
developing and producing concepts that were in the past unachievable in the construction world.
According to our survey of the construction industry and 3D printers market, we have been able
to come up with a workable marketing plan for our homes.
Marketing our construction-oriented business requires establishing a reputation for expertise
and excellence. Discounts Services L.L.C DBA DM Contracting will use YouTube, Internet,
Facebook, word of mouth, and it will be very easy to market with the Mudbot franchise as
franchisee after printing a few homes, to market our construction company.
2.2. MARKETING AREA
Discount Services L.L.C. handles the construction of homes using 3D printing technology.
Therefore, the targeted market should be the availability of clients around the MS Gulf Coast and
surrounding areas. This will lay the basis for our marketing initiative.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 15
Some competition from the likes of ICON which was the first company in America to secure a
building permit for and build a 3D printed home in 2018. The house ICON built in Austin, TX
was a proof of concept that brought their team, investors and customers together to drive towards
the future. ICON develops advanced construction technologies that advance humanity by using
3D printing, robotics, software and advanced materials. Discount aims to set the bar high and
To guarantee fair competition, Discount Services L.L.C. will use strategies like:
We are providing fair prices, which shall fit with the construction of first-class homes.
Online support services being available 24/7.
We are maintaining a close client relationship.
Sampling clients' views on the quality of services we offer and if they need an alternative
or help to satisfy their needs.
2.4. MARKETING SHARE
Research suggests that competitors take 45% of share in the total market area in the United
States. Discount Services L.L.C. aims to change these figures and occupy 35% in a year with a
target market share of up to 50% in the MS Gulf Coast and surrounding areas and above 75%
market share in the United States, which is achievable through a favorable advertising blend,
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 16
Flexible pricing of service rates.
Effective service delivery.
We are providing on-time responses to our clients' demands.
This advertising blend is to retain and enhance market share, assembly opposition, maximizing
income, reaching targets return on investment, and for survival.
(a) Direct Marketing
Discount will market itself through word of mouth recommendations. It starts with our
known contacts who are in positions to recommend us and make referrals to us and
continues with long-term efforts to develop recognition among other professionals within
the 3D printing for construction fields.
(b) Online Marketing
Marketing is achievable through the creation of online resources that portray the kind of
services that we offer and publishing them across online platforms where there are clients
who might need our services and convincing them that our 3D printing construction
techniques are only the great in phrases of rate, choice, and convenience.
(a) Social media marketing
This will involve advertising of our services through different social media platforms to reach
more clients. For example, through Facebook Pages, Twitter, Instagram, and WhatsApp showing
(b) Use of franchising
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 17
It will be very easy to market with the Mudbot franchise as franchisee after printing a few
homes, to market our construction company.
(c) Brand Marketing
Discount Services L.L.C. will contribute to sponsoring related social events to market our brand
and thus increase customer reach for our 3D printed houses
It will also provide;
Excellent customer relations.
Treat each client with loyalty.
Fulfill clients’ requirements by offering advice and guidance courteously and
3. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN
Five guiding principles support our vision:
o Customer contentment: working together for a similar cause,
o Teamwork: working together for the same purpose,
o Growth through the well-organized provision of new 3D printed houses that can
withstand hurricanes to our clients,
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 18
o Accountability: delivering on commitment, and on time
o Diversity bridges cultural differences, boosts collective wisdom and improves reliance.
o Service and sociability: Enthusiasm in caring for clients.
Skill Profile and Gaps in Management Team
The following skill profile depicts the most important skills required in Discount Services L.L.C.
team level of the company and where the gaps exist.
Founder X X
Department 1 X X X X
Department 2 O O
X= position filled, O= position vacant
Significant gaps like Realtors and 3D printers exist in the administration: The company will
outsource realtors, and purchase 3D printers at Mudbots.
3.2. PERSONNEL, NUMBER, AND DUTIES
General Advisory Board
Primary Role: To provide direction for the business.
2. Finance manager
Primary Role: To provide management with financial analysis, development budgets, and
accounting reports. Responsible for financial forecasting and risk analysis.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 19
Primary role: Responsible for overseeing sales, a champion for the consumer's needs and liaise
Discount Services L.L.C. wants everyone to play a pivotal role in service delivery. We intend to
remain as customer-centric as possible to hasten the decision-making process and to react
promptly to urgent and emergency calls.
3.3. Operations Plan and Service Development Plan
Discount Services L.L.C. operating model and procedures for the company:
General Approach to Operations
One of the biggest challenges in operating 3D Printing for construction is 3D printers are not
standardized. Therefore, both backstage (behind the scenes) and the front stage (what the clients
experience) are critical.
Back Stage (Behind the Scenes Operations Activities)
o Staff Selection: The constructors and support staff will be carefully selected.
Along with the skills they need to perform their job, team members must be able
to relate to clients in a professional, thoughtful, and caring manner.
o Motivation: Our human resources strategies will strive to create an environment
in which people are comfortable being themselves, information is transparent, and
personal and organizational values are aligned.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 20
o Emergency plans: Emergency action plans, policies, procedures, and processes
will be established and documented in the operations manual.
o Operations Manual: An operation manual will document and articulate the day-to-
day operational procedures of the company.
o Code of ethics
o Financial administration manual
Front stage (What the Clients Experience)
Constructors: They will be available to answer or fulfill clients' requests and offer
3D printing for construction consultation services according to clients' demands.
Client Tours: Each weekend, the company will provide a tour to sensitize the
importance of 3D printing for construction.
Realtors: They will act as an agent for the sale and purchase of buildings and land.
Weekly newsletter: Clients will be emailed a weekly newsletter with informative
data on new and available 3D printed houses.
3.4. RECRUITMENT, TRAINING AND PROMOTIONAL PROGRAM
Training will familiarize the personnel with the process and give them all of the crucial skills like
communique, public relations, and hands-on abilities to have the know-how of excellent service
delivery and enhance teamwork. It may even allow them to:
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 21
Have enthusiasm while dealing with clients.
Borrow ideas from others.
Use competitors as their lever
The managers and highly experienced constructors will do this training within select premises.
The employees will also be allowed to attend seminars for better service delivery outside the
The company will conduct a recruitment exercise to identify the right, qualified, and registered
workforce from the 3D Printing construction industry, done in different ways, like:
This process is also aimed at improving the construction of 3D printed houses.
Constructors and other employees in the company who work hard towards the success of the
company shall be rewarded. Discount Services will give promotions to the best staff on service
delivery and commitment
3.5. LICENSES AND BI-LAWS
We are licensed for HVAC, plumbing, and electrical.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 22
The business will use bi-laws during its operations:
Safe construction sites that are registered and licensed to ensure a conducive working
environment for excellent service delivery.
3.6. REMUNERATION AND INCENTIVES:
The business shall use the following remunerations:
(a) Working hours
Employees will enjoy flexible working hours and a favorable working environment.
(a) Salary schedule:
There will be three employees paid a monthly salary of 12000 in total.
The employee shall enjoy incentives in the business as a way of motivating them.
4. PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONAL PLAN
4.1. PRODUCTION FACILITIES AND CAPACITIES
The business will source finance from:
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 23
The business will employ three employees, printers and realtors. They provide excellent 3D
printing construction homes, accounting, and marketing services. They also have the following
Communication skills to transfer information regarding our services to clients.
Technical skills to help them know about the 3D Printing construction-related
The business operates in Mississippi.
Discount Services L.L.C. will use safe and dependable 3D printers as per the requirement of
construction to ensure order and ease their experience effectively.
4.2. PRODUCTION STRATEGY
Discount Services L.L.C. will use production techniques to market its services.
The 3D printing construction service shall comply with the criteria as proven beneath
1. We will Determine the services and offerings within which clients will be reached.
2. Determine the importance of the service inside the location
3. We are developing a more comprehensive picture relating to the clients' preferences.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 24
4.3. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Concrete Printing is said to be the future of construction industry. Discount will use
concerete printing in the construction of houses because it saves 70% of time and
material. Concrete Printing simplifies work in that you print and go. Discount plans to
purchase either E25-25H10, E35-35H10 or E44-35H10 models of concrete printers from
4.4. SWOT ANALYSIS
A successful business needs realistic and strategic planning to reach its' goals continually and
avoid backsliding. Strategic planning demands regular and consistent SWOT Analysis at least
twice every year. The four steps of SWOT for your construction industry are:
The Discount Services
We have a team of
creative and highly
We have the latest
and efficient 3D
Being the first 3D
Mississipi it may
take some time for
our company to
break into the
market and gain
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 25
practices in the
industry will guide
our work output and
We may not have
the required cash to
business the way we
would want to.
and new uses for 3D
and reduce the
number of distinct
parts needed for an
There are a lot of
competitors in the
The rise in import
penetration in the
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 26
5. FINANCIAL PLAN
This includes figuring out the route of action to reap the desired effects. It ensures financial
operations, improves motivation, and helps manage through decreasing uncertainties.
i. Salaries will remain steady for the first three years of operations however will appreciate
yearly via 3% from the fourth year of activity
ii. Discount Services LLC projects will appreciate by 10%
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 27
Report Metric Details
Years considered for the study 2020–2024
Base year 2020
Forecast period 2020–2024
Units considered Value (USD thousand), Volume (Square Meter)
Segments Construction Method, Material Type, End-use Sector
Regions APAC, North America, Europe, and RoW
Companies Yingchuang Building Technique (China), XtreeE
(France), Apis Cor (Russia), Monolite UK (UK),
CSP s.r.l. (Italy), CyBe Construction (Netherlands),
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 28
Sika (Switzerland), MX3D (Netherlands), Contour
Crafting (California), and ICON (Texas)
Floor and roof: $2434
Windows and doors: $3548
Exterior finishing: $831
Interior finishing (including suspended ceiling): $1178
5.2. DISCOUNT SERVICES LLC BALANCE SHEET
Business incorporating fees in New Orleans – $750.
Insurance, permits and license will cost – $3,500
Office space or warehouse for at least 6 months
(Re – Construction of the facility inclusive) will cost – $150,000.
Equipping the office (computers, 3D printing machines and
Equipment, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones,
Filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost – $10,000
Amount required to purchase the needed software applications – $3,500
Launching an official Website will cost – $500
Bills and staff members for at 2 to 3 months – $70,000
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 29
Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost – $5,000
3D Construction Printer (MudBots Concrete 3D Printer 664) -$38,760
Going by the report from the market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need
about two hundred thousand (288,760) U.S. dollars to successfully set – up a medium scale but
standard 3D printing and rapid prototyping services company in New Orleans.
For high-end projects with 3D printing concrete, the construction price is around $100,000,
which is actually rather low if compared to the cost of building the same building using
traditional building techniques.
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 30
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 31
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 32
5.3. DESIRED FINANCING
Item Amount (USD)
Construction 3D Printer 38,760.00
Working capital 250,000.00
DISCOUNT SERVICES L.L.C. DBA DM CONTRACTING BUSINESS PLAN 33
Ford, Simon & Minshall, Tim. (2017). Invited review article: Where and how 3D Printing is
used in teaching and education.
Jaksic, Nebojsa. (2016). MAKER: 3D Printing Evolution in Engineering Education: The things
Martinez Pacheco, Victor. (2019). Recycled 3D printing applied to low environmental impact
Parupelli, Santosh Kumar & Desai, Salil (2019). A Comprehensive Review of Additive
Manufacturing (3D Printing): Processes, Applications, and Future Potential. American
Journal of Applied Sciences.16.244-272.