Safety Net Programs are basically an assortment of welfare systems that assist in the
protection of the families as well as individuals from the low socioeconomic background and
hardships like "unemployment, income loss and poverty, physical and mental illness and
disability, family disintegration, and old age" (Greenberg 2014). Typically, there are two basic
types of safety net programs: means-tested and social insurance. Social insurance refers to the
payroll tax charged from the person's income. The main beneficially is the common person from
the above-mentioned aspects. Means-tested programs include "Temporary Assistance for Needy
Families (TANF food stamp program)" provides advantages to the people living in low
Social security is the other safety net program that is directly influenced by the nation's
capital. The social security program majorly benefits the special groups like elderly and
Medicaid. Medicaid is financed by the federal as well as state governments. Automatically, any
American elder (over 65 years) benefits from the program. According to my opinion, although
the American government expends a substantial amount on safety net programs, for example,
$2.5 trillion in 2013, the non-poor people are the beneficiaries. This is because, social insurance
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programs are the most common and specifically favor those who "have been employed the
longest, had the highest income and paid the maximum level of payroll taxes" (Greenberg 2014).
However, it is true that safety net programs as well as benefit those from low-income
backgrounds such as homeless and those living in an abject poverty. Republicans tried to cut off
the safety net programs by enacting legislation that could "cut $1 billion from the TANF block
grant, which has remained flat funded since the program began in 1996" (Grayer, Moore 2011).
Presently, around 43 and above million people in American live in abject poverty (Grayer,
Moore 2011) while around 46,874 Americans from Los Angeles County are homeless (Murray
Conclusively, safety net programs are essential since they benefit people striving with
illness and homeless. For instance, through safety net programs, the housing problem has
reduced by 28% from 2000 (Murray 2016).
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Grayer, Elizabeth, and Gwen Moore. "Families Still Need Safety Net." POLITICO. April 21,
2011. Accessed July 24, 2016.
Greenberg, EdwardS., and Benjamin I. Page. The Struggle for Democracy. Boston: Pearson,
Murray, Adam. "L.A. Has 46,874 People Who Are Homeless. If We're Not Smart, We'll Have
250,000 More." Los Angeles Times. July 14, 2016. Accessed July 23, 2016.
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Chapter 18: Foreign Policy Summary
Global Economic Instability
Global economic instability emerged as an economic as well as social issue related to the
Post-Cold War World. Since the World Trade Center attacks in New York and the Pentagon
Washington DC on 11, September 2001, terrorism became a social problem. Since then, the
United States has been struggling to counter terrorist groups like Al Qaeda using diverse ways.
For instance, under the Obama Administration, the United States Forces found and killed Osama
Bin Laden in 2011. Also, the United States has launched attacks on the Taliban regime
(Greenberg, 2014). Counter-terrorism movements like ISIS is a primary agenda for not only the
American government but worldwide. Terrorism has stagnated economic activities like the trade.
Mainly, military combat for terror threats is not the most effective approach to
counterterrorism. However, "solid policing and intelligence operations offer better protection"
(Greenberg 2014). Military responses cannot assist in improving the security of the United States
concerning the massive destruction of "economic, military, energy, or communications
infrastructure." Policing and intelligent operations are the best approaches towards terrorism
On the other hand, in case there is a proper application of the military, policing and
intelligence approach influences intense corruption, disgusting as well as shameful acts from the
United States Government security officers (The Times Editorial Board 2014). The report
projected by the Senate Intelligence Committee highlighted what took place when the CIA
detained three suspects and subjected them to "waterboarding" torture technique. For instance,
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the detainees hardly slept for 180 hours, were positioned in painful stress conditions and
experienced painful rectal rehydration (The Times Editorial Board 2014).
Conclusively, in my opinion, the use of police and military forces in combating terrorism
when supplemented with effective Policing and intelligent operations will actually influence
positive outcomes as far as terror attacks are concerned. Additionally, when terrorism threats and
attacks aren't controlled and managed, the economy of the United States, as well as that of the
world, will deteriorate. Terrorism has stagnated economic activities like the trade.
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Greenberg, Edward S., and Benjamin I. Page. Struggle for Democracy, The. Pearson, 2015.
The Times Editorial Board. "Torture Report: Our Post9/11 Shame, in Stomach-turning
Detail." Los Angeles Times. December 9, 2014. Accessed July 24, 2016.