There are three ways through which Jefferson reduced the size of the federal government.
First, Jefferson reduced the power by cutting the budget of the federalists and also by
reducing the federal debt. Secondly, Jefferson had believed in the idea known as “laissez
faire” which means “let alone” am idea which was very different from the Federalist’s
idea for the government. Alexander Hamilton the leader of the Federalists wanted the
government to promote trade and manufacturing. Lastly, Jefferson had tried to reduce the
government roles of the People’s lives. He decided to decrease the government
department sizes and had cut the federal budget. After congress had approved, he reduced
the army and navy sizes and also asked congress if they could repeal the unpopular
2. Marbury V Madison is a judgment of the Supreme Court of the United States which was
delivered on February 24, 1803. It is the most important of the judgments rendered by the
court based on the principles which it establishes. The Court affirms the capacity of the
courts, to judge the conformity of the laws with the constitution and to exclude by
applying them those which would contravene them. This principle gives the court the
most important power, and makes the first constitutional court in history.
3. Republican incumbent Thomas Jefferson soundly defeated Federalist candidate Charles
C. Pinckney with 162 electoral votes to Pinckney’s 14.
4. Impressment refers to the taking of men into military or naval force by compulsion, with
or without notice. Navies of several nations used force recruitment by various means.
5. The Democratic-Republican candidate James Madison defeated the Federalist candidate
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney decisively.
6. Macon’s Bill Number2, which became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was
intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during
the Napoleonic Wars. This bill was a revision of the original bill by Representative
Nathaniel Macon, known as Macon’s Bill Number 1.
7. On September 13-14, the British attacked Fort McHenry. The failure of the bombardment
and sight of the American flag inspired Francis Scott Key to compose “The Star-
Spangled Banner.” Following the war of 1812, new methods of coastal defense brought
about changes that resulted in the fort we view today.
8. Because the decisive victory was followed shortly afterward by news of a peace treaty,
many Americans at the same time mistakenly believed the Battle of New Orleans had
won the war. The Battle of New Orleans is also important because it propelled Andrew
Jackson to fame as a war hero.
9. The Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, also known as Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida
Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty, was a treaty between the United States and Spain
in 1819 that ceded Florida to the U.S and defined the boundary between the U.S and New
10. Monroe warned European countries not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere, stating
“that the American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future
colonization by any European powers.” The Monroe Doctrine became a cornerstone of
future U.S foreign policy.
11. The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. It was invented in a way to
increase the production of cotton by speeding up the removal of seeds from cotton fiber.
Although the Cotton Gin did not make Eli Whitney much money, it benefited the South
and their economy.
12. Chief Justice of the United States – decisions have shaped the country in important and
historic ways. Marshall pronounced key ideas about how power should be balanced
between the state and the national government, how powerful Supreme Court ought to be
and his view of the power of the constitution have positively influenced the economy and
are very relevant today.
13. Its tittle translates as On Democracy in America, but English translations are usually
simply entitled Democracy in America. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustavo de
Beaumont were sent by the French government to study the American prison system.
14. Montesque, a French enlightenment thinker, argued that moderate government was far
more compatible with Christianity, while a despotic government was more compatible
with Islam. He therefore proposed the idea that civilization came from the west.
15. Andrew Jackson had nicknames such as The Hero of New Orleans, Old Hickory and
King Mob. His determination combined with his willingness to suffer alongside me,
caused his men to come up with the nickname “Old Hickory.”
16. Rachel Jackson was always at the side of Andrew Jackson during the election period and
was the chief strategist during his campaign.
17. A spoil system is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives
government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for
working toward victory, and an incentive to keep working for the party.
18. Andrew Jackson was an expert in defending a lady’s honor saw in the Peggy Eaton Affair
a replication of all the scurrilous attacks on Rachel.
19. The Doctrine of Nullification suggested that states residing within the Union have
unilateral, inherent right to avoid any law created by the federal government that could be
deemed unconstitutional. The United States was formed on the basis of a general
consensus among its individual states.
20. The congress passed the Force Bill, which, was enacted on March 2, 1833. It authorized
the president to use of whatever force he deemed necessary to enforce federal tariffs.
21. The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The
law authorizes the president to negotiate with the southern Native American tribes for
their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their
22. Jumping the broom is a ceremony in which the bride and groom, either at the ceremony
or at the reception, signify their entrance into a new life and creation of a new family by
symbolically “sweeping away” their former single lives, former problems and concerns,
and jump over the broom to enter upon a new set of life.
23. Nat Turner’s Rebellion was a slave rebellion which took place in Southampton country
during august 1831. Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed from 55 to 65 people, at least
51 being white. The rebellion was put down within a few days, hut Turner survived in
hiding for more than two months afterwards.
24. Horace Mann was an American educational reformer and Whig politician dedicated to
promoting public education. He served in Massachusetts State legislature between 1827
25. The influence of religion and morality on criminal justice has been of great importance
throughout the history. Morality is a common part of religious beliefs and the primary
role of religion is to exert a control over its followers. The means of punishment of the
criminals and execution have since changed due to influence of religion.
26. Scientific reasoning and humane treatments were valued by European Psychiatrist,
Benjamin Rush, who encouraged more humane treatment of the mentally ill.
27. The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women’s convention. It advertised itself as a
convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition rights of woman. Held in
Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over 19 – 20, 1848.
28. Millennialism, also called millenarianism or chiliasm, the belief, expressed in the book of
Revelation to John, the last book of the New Testament, that Christ will establish a 1,000
year reign of the saints on earth (the millennium) before the Last Judgment.
29. Mother Ann Lee was the leader of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second
Appearing, or the Shakers. In 1774, Ann Lee and a small group of her followers
emigrated from England to New York.
30. Mormons are a religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch
of the Latter Day by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s.
31. Manifest Destiny, a phrase coined in 1845, expressed the philosophy that drove 19th-
century U.S. territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny held that the United States was
destined—by God, its advocates believed—to expand its dominion and spread democracy
and capitalism across the entire North American continent.
32. An important reason for moving was that the Mormons wanted to escape the non-
Mormons they despised, and called the Gentiles. They thought Gentiles were "…the
lowest of men. Many of them fled to the frontier country to escape the law. We disliked
their midnight parties, their Sabbath-breaking, horse racing and gambling."
33. Although Mexico's war of independence pushed out Spain in 1821, Texas did not remain
a Mexican possession for long. It became its own country, called the Republic of Texas,
from 1836 until it agreed to join the United States in 1845. Sixteen years later, it seceded
along with 10 other states to form the Confederacy.
34. In 1846, after Polk ordered General Taylor's troops into the disputed
territory, Mexican forces attacked an American Army outpost in the occupied territory,
killing 12 U.S. soldiers and capturing 52. Polk cited this attack as an invasion of U.S.
territory and requested that the Congress declare war.
35. Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817, in Concord, Massachusetts. He began
writing nature poetry in the 1840s, with poet Ralph Waldo Emerson as a mentor and
friend. In 1845 he began his famous two-year stay on Walden Pond, which he wrote
about in his master work, Walden.
36. The war officially ended with the February 2, 1848, signing in Mexico of the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo. The treaty added an additional 525,000 square miles to United States
territory, including the land that makes up all or parts of present-day Arizona, California,
Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
37. Congressman David Wilmot first introduced the proviso in the United States House of
Representatives on August 8, 1846, as a rider on a $2,000,000 appropriations bill
intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican–American War
38. Miners extracted more than 750,000 pounds of goldduring the California Gold Rush. Just
days after Marshall's discovery at Sutter's Mill, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was
signed, ending the Mexican-American War and leaving California in the hands of the
39. Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American
author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on
attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the U.S. and is said to have "helped
lay the groundwork for the Civil War".
40. The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed
people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for them whether or not to
allow slavery within their borders. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of
1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.
41. he Know-Nothing Party, also known as the American Party, was a prominent United
States political party during the late 1840s and the early 1850s. The American Party
originated in 1849. Its members strongly opposed immigrants and followers of the
42. Dred Scott, a black slave, and his wife had once belonged to army surgeon John
Emerson, who had bought him from the Peter Blow family of St. Louis. After Emerson
died, the Blows apparently helped Scott sue Emerson's widow for his freedom, but lost
the case in state court.
43. The election of 1860 was a pivotal year in our history. Seven southern states seceded
from the Union immediately after the election of Abraham Lincoln. The
South was convinced that President Lincoln was going to end slavery. They were
convinced he would end slavery.
44. In 1861, enthusiasm for war ran high on both sides. The North fought to restore the
Union, which Lincoln declared could never be broken. In 1861, Americans in both the
North and South romanticized war as noble and positive.
45. It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. Yielding to political pressure,
Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the
equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard camped
near Manassas Junction.
46. The Battle of Antietam was fought on September 17, 1862 between the Union and the
Confederacy during the Civil War. It took place near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The
Southern forces were led by General Robert E. Lee and the Northern forces were led by
General George B. McClellan.
47. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863,
as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared
"that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall
48. Ulysses S. Grant was the final commander of the Union Army. He was famous for his
victories in the West when he was appointed lieutenant general and general-in-chief of
the Union Army in March 1864.
49. Johnston's plan was to have these men follow him as soon as possible to for the first time
that he had shown his ability to employ cavalry in the strategy of a campaign. He
ordered Sherman to burn down the factory and to wreck everything else that was there in
place. Unaware that in living off the land, Grant's troops had wrung the necks of any
50. It was the final engagement of Confederate States Army General-in-Chief, Robert E. Lee,
and his Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army of the
Potomac under the Commanding General of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant.
51. Reconstruction refers to the period following the Civil War of rebuilding the United
States. It was a time of great pain and endless questions. On what terms would the
Confederacy be allowed back into the Union? Who would establish the terms, Congress
or the President?
52. A more stringent plan was proposed by Senator Benjamin F. Wade and Representative
Henry Winter Davis in February 1864. The Wade-Davis Bill required that 50 percent of a
state's white males take a loyalty oath to be readmitted to the Union. In addition, states
were required to give blacks the right to vote.
53. The 13th Amendment to the Constitution declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, nor any place subject to their jurisdiction."
54. Sherman's Field Order No. 15. William T. Sherman issued his Special Field
Order No. 15, which confiscated as Union property a strip of coastline stretching from
Charleston, South Carolina, to the St. John's River in Florida, including Georgia's Sea
Islands and the mainland thirty miles in from the coast.
55. In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that
gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and
offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South.
56. All Southern states except Tennessee refused to ratify the amendment, so Congress
passed the Military Reconstruction Act – the first of four such measures to be passed by
Congress, vetoed by the President, and then passed again with a 2/3 vote.
57. Republicans assumed the new black voters would vote Republican just as their president.
They feared ratification of the 15th Amendment would automatically create some way
through for the Republican. Despite Democratic opposition, the Republicans steadily
won ratification. Groups: Republicans, Blacks, Abolitionists, Woman Suffragists,
58. Redeemers were the southern wing of the Bourbon Democrats, the conservative, pro-
business faction in the Democratic Party, who pursued a policy of Redemption, seeking
to oust the Radical Republican coalition of freedmen, "carpetbaggers", and "scalawags".
59. The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely
disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal
government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the
60. a) equal voting rights, sharecropping, and equal education
b) segregation, white supremacy, and a positive economic transformation
c) one-party rule, a diversified economy, and equal facilities for all
d) disenfranchisement of blacks, expansion of industry, and benevolence toward the