The United States of American's healthcare has historically shown some advancement to
the present date. In the 1900s, the United States health care systems were resistant to the health
insurance reforms in the nation (Singh, 2015). Ultimately, there are several developments
connected to the corporatization of American healthcare. The historical perspective of the
American healthcare systems has ever depended on the anthro-cultural values and social,
economic and political antecedents. The healthcare systems in the United States evolution took
place through four fundamental eras; the pre-industrial (consumer sovereignty), post-industrial
(professional dominance), corporatization (corporate dominance) and healthcare reform
Historical Development of American Healthcare
According to Mohammed et al., (2016), during the post-industrial era, healthcare systems
were not well developed. The medical practice in the United States during the 1700s and 1800s
was in a disarrayed state, was a trade rather than a profession. The services provided were
primitive especially during medical procedures. During the pre-industrial era, there were no
technological facilities that would prevent excess bleeding, emetics and ensure the wound is
purgative. Healthcare systems during the 1700s and 1800s lack institutional core such as
almshouses and penthouses. There were no standard medical facilities like dispensaries,
hospitals, and mental asylums. The level of medical education during this era was substandard. It
was mainly apprenticeship and college medical education that was not integrated with scientific
HISTORY OF AMERICAN HEALTHCARE 3
Unlike in the pre-industrial era, this era the United States physicians acquired
professional sovereignty and as a result, they resisted the federal health care programs. However,
healthcare facilities, procedures and the medicines became transformed because of the reasons
like urbanization, technological science, institutionalization, and increment for patient
dependency. During this post-industrial era, the nursing and medical sectors started to become
autonomous and organization. Licensing of the medical professional originated in postindustrial
era. As these licensing process continuous thus encouraging educational reforms. Post-industrial
era professional sovereignty was encouraged by the urbanization. This increase healthcare
service delivery in the United States (Mohammed et al., 2016).
Due to development of the science and technology, the healthcare systems in the United
States got advanced. The cultural authority, an aspect of the corporatization was developed that
encouraged general acceptance of as well as reliance on the members' judgment concerning
education and professionalism of the medics and nurses. In this era, there is an increased
requirement for professional medical services and reduced dependence on familial interventions.
This era in the United States is when the government started to establish public health.
The American healthcare systems and organization struggled to address the preventative
measures of the diseases rather than treating. As a result, the invention of vaccinations and
immunizations to public health campaigns were increased. As a result, by 1911, there was a rise
for private health care insurance coverage. For instance, the creation of Medicaid and Medicare
health services after 1965 (Mohammed et al., 2016).
Healthcare and Technology
HISTORY OF AMERICAN HEALTHCARE 4
The invention of technology since the 1980s has led to some improvement in the United
States' medical technology, graduate medical technology, and professionalization of the medical
nursing staff. Ultimately, technology has affected the delivery of care in the United States health
care systems and facilities. Medical technology includes the discovery of the medicines and
modern procedures used in the treatment of patients (Farooq et al., (2015). Development and
improvement in medical technology has significantly improved the ability of the physicians in
the diagnostic and treatment phases. Graduate medical technology encourages innovativeness
among healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals with graduate medical technology are
able to devise new modern approaches to improving the quality of the services provided to the
clients. Professionalization of medical nursing is essential since it encourages the integration of
technology in healthcare service enhancement especially on public health. Professionalization is
important because it encourages preventions of the diseases, improvement of the surgical
procedures, information is being accessed professionally. Professionalization in the medical field
has influenced technological medical research on prevention, diagnostic strategies and treatment
methods (Farooq et al., (2015). Therefore, these technologies increase the quality of care and
National Healthcare Systems
The study by Wager, Lee & Glaser (2017), suggest that the United States has been
unsuccessful to encourage the evolution of the current healthcare systems into a national health
care system. There are several factors connected to it. These factors include the American unique
culture, the interest American groups aren't interested, and a challenge in of the national
healthcare system programs entitlement. The American unique political culture believes that
HISTORY OF AMERICAN HEALTHCARE 5
classical liberalism prevents the government from being involved in social roles. Bearing in mind
that the national healthcare systems contradict such strong political culture holding the notion of
the limitedness and individualism prevent the United States from enacting such systems. The
United States has not yet enacted the national healthcare systems because the interest groups
strongly oppose the American Health Care Act, a form of a national healthcare system. Due to
the structural biases of the American political institutions, the enactment of the United States
national health system becomes a marred activity. Therefore, the United States stands as an
advanced/developed nation without complex national healthcare systems.
HISTORY OF AMERICAN HEALTHCARE 6
Farooq, F., Rosales, R. E., Yu, S., Krishnapuram, B., & Rao, B. R. (2015). U.S. Patent No.
8,949,082. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Mohammed, K., Nolan, M. B., Rajjo, T., Shah, N. D., Prokop, L. J., Varkey, P., & Murad, M. H.
(2016). Creating a patient-centered health care delivery system: a systematic review of
health care quality from the patient perspective. American Journal of Medical Quality,
Singh, D. A. (2015). Essentials of the US health care system. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Wager, K. A., Lee, F. W., & Glaser, J. P. (2017). Healthcare information systems: a practical
approach to healthcare management. John Wiley & Sons.