|Technical skills orientation: forecasting, budgeting.||Relationship oriented: networking, interpersonal relationships.|
|Decisions are based more on analysis.||Decisions are based more on perceptions of people.|
|Developing systems is important to organizations.||Developing relationships and networks is important to organizations.|
|Expert systems.||Experts as people.|
|Cost control and evaluation of value are important.||Image and customer relationships are important.|
Source: Ledlow, G., & Cwiek, M. (2005). The process of leading: Assessment and comparison of leadership team style, operating climate and expectation of the external environment. Proceedings of Global Business and Technology Association, Lisbon, Portugal: Global Business and Technology Association.
Fourth, the effective leader understands the powerful relationship between trust and understanding; increased trust leads to greater understanding, and increased understanding in turn leads to greater trust. Fifth, a leader must be adaptive. Numerous studies have demonstrated that one leadership style is not enough for effective leadership. Leaders should be able to be flexible and adapt to varying situations, because the environment is continually changing and leaders must respond to that change. A leader’s ability to adapt to numerous situations is profoundly evident with regard to leading people and managing resources within systems that support patient care practice and improving and maintaining good quality community health status. These systems, such as large core business components, clinical and patient care, supply chain, revenue management, financial, and human resources, and subsystems such as preparedness and contingency operations, community assessment, and others, must have leadership and integration to work seamlessly together to fulfill the mission of the health organization. The complexity of leading systems is a true adaptive challenge for leaders.
Finally, the role of integrity cannot be overstated. In many ways, the previous five foundations are part of what is considered integrity in leadership. That is, a leader with integrity communicates in a fair and balanced manner; is consistent in living a life of integrity, on and off the job; and is trustworthy and understood, because the leader values trusting and understanding others. Integrity in leadership, however, includes many more elements. Leadership integrity means sometimes being alone to act in a moral fashion. It means doing the right thing for the organization while not forgetting the rights and sensibilities of individuals. It means putting the interests of others before and above one’s own. Integrity, coupled with competence, forms the necessary foundation for a successful health leader.
Many leadership theories and models contain elements of both the science and artistry of leadership, either directly or by implication. Consider the model by Chambers of the six agencies of leadership: (1) communication, (2) participation, (3) preparation, (4) identification of options, (5) closure (move beyond past conflicts, negativity, and inequity), and (6) celebration. 31 Of these six agencies, some are artistic, some are scientific, and others could work both ways. The science is embodied in processes and tasks associated with evaluating, planning, decision making, and training. The artistry of leadership is embodied in processes and tasks associated with relationship building, communicating, persuading, coaching, and evaluating or establishing context. The scientist-leader and the artist-leader both envision, create and develop, and implement. The key is to produce the best possible results through solid leadership, to do that which must be done to balance science and art. Where the scientist and the artist converge is in the creation, implementation, refinement, and maintenance of communication systems, strategic planning, decision-making systems, employee enhancement mechanisms, organizational learning, and knowledge management.
Although leaders are gifted in different ways, with different personalities and varying skill sets, all leaders can grow, become more skillful, and become more competent so that they can achieve greater effectiveness. The common factors shared by those who succeed in becoming great leaders in the health industry are the desire to learn more about themselves, the motivation to learn and practice new skill sets, and the need to become more tomorrow than what they are today. This is not the easiest path, but it is the path that optimizes the likelihood of leadership effectiveness and success.