-Name of article: Curtailing the code of silence among the South African police
Author(s): Vinovich, Sanja Kutnjak
APA Citation: Ivkovich, S. K., & Sauerman, A. (2013). Curtailing the code of silence among the South African police. Policing: An International Journal, 36(1), 175–198. https://doi-org.ez.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/10.1108/13639511311302533
The purpose of this article is to inform people about the code of silence in South Africa due to corruption and misconduct in the police department. In this article it explains how it starts with the higher ups which are the line officers and supervisors in the police department. The goal is to enhance police integrity in the police agency. The police agency is being corrupted when it comes to discipline.
In this research study it surveyed police supervisors from seven South African provinces and autonomous provinces. The survey that was given to the police supervisors contained 11 vignettes describing many forms of police corruption and one vignette describing the use of excessive force. The participants in this study was the South African police force which consists of 379 police supervisors. The questionnaire of the survey contained 11 hypothetical scenarios measuring the extent of police integrity. The questions range from accepting holiday gifts, free meals and discounts, opportunistic thefts, shakedowns, bribery, and excessive force. This sample was used to measure the code of silence and the corruption that goes on in the agency. The survey was given out when the South African police agency were at training centers. They were also asked how long they worked in their position and how many years they have at the job. The authors Vinovich and Sauerman found that the code of silence does not protect all misconduct equally. That the code of silence protects the police corruption from expose. With the exception of the 3 most serious scenarios of police corruption there is no relationship that exist between the code of silence and disciplinary fairness. The results of this research study were the South African police department had a strong code of silence among the supervisors. They would rather keep quiet about the corruption that is going on in the agency than admit to it. The only way they would the police would speak out depends on the circumstance.
Name of article: Explaining officer compliance: The importance of procedural justice and trust inside a police organization
Author(s): Haas, Nicole E, Van Craen, Maarten, Skigan, Wesley G, Fleitas, Diego M
APA Citation: Haas, N., Van Craen, M., Skogan, W., & Fleitas, D. (2015). Explaining officer compliance: The importance of procedural justice and trust inside a police organization. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 15(4), 442–463. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895814566288
This article is about how the community feels like police officers are not following the rules and polices. This is an issue because this is how corruption and police misconduct with excessive force begins to build up. The researchers are testing officer’s compliance from a procedural justice and social exchange prospective. The two concepts that need to be answered is officer’s compliance with supervisors and polices and officer endorsement of regulation on the use of force, the participants in this research study was the Metropolitan police that is a newly created force in 2008. The survey was conducted in 2013 during the annual retraining od police personnel. A total of 536 police officers participated in this survey. The survey was self-administered on computers. The survey was given between March and April 2013. The concepts were measured using multiple indicators ranging from 1-6. The object of the survey was to securitize the relationship between internal procedural justice and officer compliance in the Metropolitan police. The findings of this survey data were “trust in supervisors not empirically distinguishable from the perception of internal procedural justice. After com- bining the perception of internal procedural justice and trust into one variable, structural equation modeling showed it to be positively related to (stated) officer compliance with supervisors and policies. “The research concluded that their hypotheses were correct that the use of force depends on the compliance of there superior. however, there were some limitations. That the researches couldn’t actually measure the police behavior, so they had to measure the attitudes.
Name of article: Corruption and Trust in Police: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Procedural Justice
Author(s): K. Nalla, Mahesh, Nam, Yongiae
APA Citation: K. Nalla, M., & Nam, Y. (2020). Corruption and Trust in Police: Investigating the Moderating Effect of Procedural Justice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 306624–. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X20928019
The purpose of the article, “Corruption and trust in police“, is to inspect the duty of the citizens’ contact with the police and their valuations of officer’s corruption in the police. Therefore, this article examines whether police procedural justice controls the relationship between citizens’ evaluations of police fraudulence and trust. The goal of this article is to measure the relationship between police effectiveness and faith in the police. The participants of this research study were from Delhi, India. A total number of 845 police officers participated in this survey. This research was conducted during a period when there were increased cases of fraud and dishonesty. Questionnaires were primarily used to collect data, in which several hypothetical questions were asked. The survey was used to measure the moderating outcome of procedural fairness in the police. The trust the citizens have for the police is demonstrated by their fear of committing the crime, connection with the police, and police efficiency.
This survey data’s findings were: First, procedural justice moderates the strength of the relationship of corruption on trust even though citizens’ insight of police fraudulence is a substantial illustrative variable of trust in police. Second, interaction experience’s nature shows essential differences in the moderating outcome of procedural fairness on the association between fraudulence and trust in police, lastly, regardless of the nature of connection experience. Police efficiency and trust in police are connected. The researchers conclude that the hypotheses were correct, and the nature of interaction experience illustrates essential differences in the moderating outcome of procedural fairness.
Name of article: Do Public Corruption Convictions Influence Citizens’ Trust in Government? The Answer Might Not Be a Simple Yes or No
Author(s): Zhang, Yahong, Kim, Min-Hvu
APA Citation: Zhang, Y., & Kim, M. (2018). Do Public Corruption Convictions Influence Citizens’ Trust in Government? The Answer Might Not Be a Simple Yes or No. American Review of Public Administration, 48(7), 685–698. https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074017728792
The purpose of this research study is to identify whether the trust of the citizens in the government will rise or fall when the number of public corruption convictions increases. Another research hypothesis that this study explains is whether the more significant conventional ideology will reduce or increase trust in government. This article describes how the influence of corruption convictions on government trust affects the confidence the citizens have for the government. This research study survey was conducted between the years 1979 and 2012. The participants of this study were US citizens, and it was investigated up to what degree were their trust affected by fraudulence convictions.
To test the hypothesis, state-level panel data set from several sources were put into use. The results presented that there was a negative relationship between public trust and public corruption convictions. Therefore, illustrating that an increase in corruption convictions would reduce public trust in the government and decrease corruption convictions would also increase public confidence. In addition to that, increased anti-corruption attempts would lead to a more vital trust in the government.
Name of article: Police reform and the problem of trust
Author(s): Goldsmith, Andrew
APA Citation: Goldsmith, A. (2016). Police reform and the problem of trust. Theoretical Criminology, 9(4), 443–470. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480605057727
This article is about how the citizens tend to build trust in the police based on the police transformations undertaken mainly in upcoming and developed countries. This is an issue since this is how mistrust on the police starts to build up due to the reforms. The primary purpose of this research study is to identify how police reforms affect public trust. The article suggests that the absence of citizens’ trust in the police coming up with reform is somehow difficult or impossible to accomplish. The nature of confidence is inspected in general terms and related to the issue of trust in governance.
The participants of this survey were a group of adult citizens who were asked questions by using questionnaires. Some of the questions asked were: which type of reforms causes distrust on the police officers, whether all authoritative reforms should be stopped, and many more questions. This research survey also determined that the degree of trust is surveyed in general terms and is associated with confidence in governance. The findings of this survey data are that reforms from the police cause issues of mistrust. This, therefore, means that when police introduce new reforms or increase the number of reforms, then the level of mistrust increases. The research study also asses that when public trust in those on authority is absent, coming up with new ideas and plans is almost out of. Reach. The article finally summarizes by stating some limitations and constraints: the necessity to be confident in the tools we use to build trust and the effect of a broader environment in which policy building occurs.
Name of article: Corruption and Police Legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan
Author(s): Jackson, Jonathan, Asif, Muhammad, Bradford, Ben, Zakria Zakar, Muhammad
APA Citation: Jackson, J., Asif, M., Bradford, B., & Zakria Zakar, M. (2014). Corruption and Police Legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan. British Journal of Criminology, 54(6), 1067–1088. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azu069
The primary purpose of this article is to determine and show the relationship between dishonesty, injustice, unfairness, and police rightfulness. The article also assessed the value of separating between two objects of rightfulness in a procedural fairness outline that contains citizens’ experience of the police fraudulence.
The survey tests different hypotheses to conclude. First, it tests that when authorities exert their power in just and fairways, it indicates to the citizens in the society that they are essential, highly appreciated, and valued. Another hypothesis tested is that when the police execute their power in honest and fairways, it indicates to the citizens that those in power have good interests. The article also links citizens’ experience of police dishonesty to their insights of police efficiency, justness, and rightfulness. To assess the links between the beliefs behind police procedural justness and those beliefs behind police rightfulness in Lahore, the participants were asked if they believed those in authority lacked respect, did not maintain equality, and were willing or not to engage in the conversations with the citizens. The researchers then connected the answers that were received to their insight into those in authority’s rightfulness.
The method used to collect data was simply measuring peoples’ personal and public insights of police fraudulence by conducting surveys. Some of the questions asked were: If they had ever at one point promised an officer a favor or bribed the officer, if they had ever seen someone pay a police officer for popularity, if they had ever been requested by an officer to give a bribe. They objected if they have ever been forced to participate in fraudulent activity, among other many questions. The indirect knowledge in M Plus7 was employed in estimating the indirect consequences of police fraudulence on confidence. In this article, findings are taken from a survey in two cities in Lahore, Pakistan. This research study shows that in a situation in which less efficiency and honesty are yet to be recognized, police rightfulness may rest the procedural justice of those in authorities and their demonstrated capability to manage misconduct and reduce fraud. Therefore, the research surveys accept the hypothesis and conclude that when the authorities execute their powers in just and honest ways, the citizens get an indication that they are appreciated and valued. In addition to that, when the police conduct their power in appropriate and ethical methods, the citizens become satisfied that their interests are at heart.
Name of article: A cultural constraints theory of police corruption: Understanding the persistence of police corruption in contemporary Indonesia
Author(s): Buttle, John W, Graham Davies, Sharyn, Meliala, Adrianus E
APA Citation: Buttle, J., Graham Davies, S., & Meliala, A. (2016). A cultural constraints theory of police corruption: Understanding the persistence of police corruption in contemporary Indonesia. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 49(3), 437–454. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004865815573875
The primary purpose of this article is to inspect and examine the various reasons for the continued existence of police dishonesty and cases of fraud. The international considerations are discovered to explain police fraudulence that results in Indonesia’s historical and socio-cultural aspects. The article explains that these theories are only partly appropriate to Indonesia. The writers argue that the cultural constraints theory expounds on invitational, slimy slant, and good cause but identifies Indonesia’s separate nature. The research study survey entailed several police officers of about 200 in number and some citizens approximately 100 in number. The data collection method implied was the use of questionnaires. The questions ranged from reasons for the persistence of corruption to aspects that lead to an increase in crime. The researchers found out that Indonesia’s corruption level is on the rise despite twelve years of reforms. The findings explain that corruption levels are still on the rise. Therefore, the research study concludes by accepting the hypothesis that even though there are many reforms, the police corruption on the citizens is still persistent due to some cultural aspects.
Name of article: Public Confidence in the Police: Testing the Effects of Public Experiences of Police Corruption in Ghana
Author(s): Tankebe, J
APA Citation: Tankebe, J. (2010). Public Confidence in the Police: Testing the Effects of Public Experiences of Police Corruption in Ghana. British Journal of Criminology, 50(2), 296–319. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azq001
The primary purpose of this article is to compare the consequences of police fraudulence on the public perception of the police. This article explains how corruption affects public trust in the police. The hypothesis to be tested was whether the citizens’ experience was ruined due to police fraudulence. There are three main objects on police perception by the citizens: police fidelity, efficiency, and procedural fairness. The study tests the consequences of the police fraudulence’s citizens’ experiences on the three dimensions of police insight.
The survey was conducted in Accra, Ghana, and many people living in Ghana were surveyed. The survey was self-administered as well as the use of questionnaires. This survey lasted for about two months and the outcomes measured using several indicators. This survey’s main object was to examine the relationship between the consequences of corruption and the public trust of the police. This research study showed that citizens’ experience of corruption and fulfillment with reform measures detailed assessments of police fidelity, efficiency, and procedural fairness. The research concluded that the hypothesis was corrected, and it was accepted that the police dishonesty altered the citizens’ public experience.