Monoglosic and Heteroglossic
Language is the most essential part of learning because it is required in communication. The learning techniques mostly include communication between the teacher and the student. Narrowing down to the school situation, language becomes important due to several reasons language is the medium through which the process of learning takes place, it normally takes place in the language of power in a nation or a state and the fact that language is an important subject in the school situation. Heteroglossia is the presence of two or more expressed viewpoints in a text or an artistic device. On the other hand. Monoglossia refers to a person who only speaks one language or a person who has the perception that all the people only speak in one native language. This paper looks at the way the monoglossic and heteroglossic belief in education (Flores & Schissel, 2014).
How the monoglossic and heteroglossic ideologies impact the planning of different types of bilingual education programs.
The monoglossic language ideologies are known to marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of the emergent bilinguals. Heteroglossic language ideologies have therefore been brought in the learning process with the aim of bringing reforms to the education sector. Institutions are continuously receiving students from different linguistic groups like the many areas in the world become cosmopolitan. Monoglossic language ideologies act as a barrier in the procession of the of the bilingual education programs in various institutions. The schools have to move from the monogossic language ideologies if they have to address the needs of the emerging group of bilingual students in the institutions. The education system of the United States of America has a responsibility of accommodating all the students that get into the system despite their origin or race. The improvement of the quality of education also involves accommodating the bilingual students into the system (Flores & Schissel, 2014). The heteroglossic ideologies are important because they improve the bilingual education programs. Most of the institutions are moving from the monoglossic language ideologies to the heteroglossic language ideologies as a way of accommodating the ever increasing number of the bilingual students. The bilingual education programs are important to society because they improve the quality of education by ensuring that all the people are accommodated in the education system. The bilingual education programs have to be encouraged to ensure that the students are able to enjoy their time in the classes (Flores & Bale, 2017).
Bilingual education for minorities and majorities.
The United States of America is said to be a country of the immigrants but it reportedly has a bad relationship with the immigrants and the other minorities in the country. The administration of the country is keen to ensure that the relationship is repaired and that all the people in the country enjoy their stay. The country initially had problems with the immigrants and their languages. In the colonial period, most of the people spoke French, German and English. Ohio was the first state to adopt a bilingual education law where they authorized the German-English instruction in their schools at the request of the parents. The state of Louisiana also followed suit by enacting an identical provision for the French and English languages in the year 1847. The New Mexico territory is also lauded for taking such an action in the year 1850. Some more states passed a similar provision in an attempt to ensure that the minorities and the majorities are accommodated in the education system. The information above shows the history that led to the inclusion of bilingual qualification to the people in the society. The bot the government and the civil groups have been fighting against the Americanization of the immigrants and ensuring that they are able to speak their languages in the country. The Americanization efforts were stemmed by the great depression which reduced the obsession of the country to root out the foreign languages (Flores & García, 2013).
The government of the United States of America has been on the forefront to promote the bilingual education for the minorities and the majorities in the country by coming up with a legislation dubbed “bilingual education” that has given credibility to the idea of instruction using the two languages. The other states have followed up the federal government and they have passed the legislation to provide a variety of bilingual education programs. Massachusetts was the first state to pass the bilingual education law in the year 1971. The judiciary has also been on the forefront to ensure equal education for all in the United States of America. In the Supreme Court ruling Lau v Nichols where 1856 Chinese speaking students complained of being sidelined in the education process because of their inability to understand the classroom instruction and there were no accommodations that were made with regards to their language demands. The court directed that the institution avail to them the curriculum that was available to the English speaking students. There are some states that have worked against the bilingual law and continued providing the education programs in English. For instance, California was the first state to overturn the bilingual law and established English-only instruction in the schools. Anyone willing to study within the schools in the state has to learn the English language. The Equal Educational Opportunities Act (EEOA) that was passed by the Congress in the United States of America required the districts in the county to take up the appropriate actions will prevent language barrier among the people in the society. The appropriate action was clarified in 5th Circuit in (1981) Castan˜eda v Pickard decision where the jury suggested the development of a three-prong standard that includes a problem that based on a recognized theory, implementing the measures according to the theory, and to develop its effectiveness over time. The efforts that have been put in place by the stakeholders in the United States of America have played an important role in combating the cases of a language barrier in the education sector. Most of the Americans believe that bilingual education is about teaching the students English as opposed to educating them in two languages (Flores & García, 2013).
A Comparison and contrast in the relationships between majority and minoritized language groups in bilingual education policy and program planning for monoglossic and heteroglossic.
The majority language groups are privileged to have many people who understand their language hence their learning process is much easier. On the other hand, the minorities need the support of the people in the society including the majority to ensure that they are able to undertake the learning process effectively. The education policy is one of the efforts by the government of the United States of America to ensure that all the people in the country have access to the high-quality medical care that will improve their lives. In the states where the people have the monoglossic tendencies, the majority will enjoy access to education whereas the minority will have to learn the language of the majority if they have to enjoy the improved education in the society. Both the minoritized and the majority language groups enjoy the policies that have been put in place by the government to ensure improved education in the country. However, the minoritized language groups face several challenges especially in the states that do not want education to be carried out in a multilingual manner. The members of the minoritized language groups may find it harder to quickly grasp the contents that are being taught during the lessons (García & Lin, 2016).
Advantages and disadvantages of specific monoglossic and heteroglossic bilingual program models
There are several advantages that are associated with the monoglossic and heteroglossic bilingual program models. For instance, heteroglossic immersion enables an individual to understand the language and any lesson that is taught in that particular language through a wide spectrum. It also makes the process of communication among the people to be much easier. The disadvantage is that there is a general reluctance with regards to the application of the model. Developmenta is another model that is used in learning a language and teaching the vast number of students on the language. Developmenta ensures that the people in a given society understand more about a language in such a way that it can help them in the learning process. The disadvantage is the fact that it is so hard for the people in the society to adopt the model into the learning system. The poly directional model is more effective because it shows the readers that there are two perspectives or directions to a language. The disadvantage is the fact that its application takes a lot of time. Finally, among the heteroglossic bilingual program model, there is the multiple multilingual because it gives several perspectives of learning (García & Wei, 2015).
What you found most interesting or important about the monoglossic and heteroglossic policies and programing planning for bilingual education?
The most important thing about the heteroglossic policy is the fact that it leads to uniformity due to the fact that all the people in the institution are able to communicate in the same language. The other important thing to note is the fact that it affects the learning process of the minority language groups in the society. It is therefore important for the learning institutions to consider all the learners so that they carry out an efficient learning process that will increase the level of their understanding in the concepts that are being taught in the institution. The most important thing about the monoglossic policies is that it is somewhat discriminative and it disadvantages the minority linguistic groups that are found in the country. The states that are rigid in such a way that they only accept the policy at the expense of the others should be considerate and accommodate the minority groups in the state. The education system needs to be holistic especially in the current age where networking is the order of the day and the world has become a global village where many people interact with each other in a much improved fashion compared to the traditional days. The number of the migrants is increasing at a higher rate and some of them are looking for educational opportunities whereas the others are looking for job opportunities in the country (García & Wei, 2015).
Linguistics is an essential part of communication that must be better understood. It is better for the education systems to adopt the heteroglossic policies as opposed to the monoglossic policies because of the fact that the former is fair for all the people in the state. Equality should be emphasized in all the places in the society and in all the states so that there are no cases of discrimination that could lead to negative publicity within the country. All the stakeholders in the education sectors should work to ensure equity in the education sector.
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Flores, N., & Schissel, J. L. (2014). Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform. TESOL Quarterly, 48(3), 454-479.
Flores, N., & García, O. (2013). 14. Linguistic Third Spaces in Education: Teachers’ Translanguaging across the Bilingual Continuum. Managing Diversity in Education, 243-256. doi:10.21832/9781783090815-016
García, O., & Lin, A. M. (2016). Translanguaging in Bilingual Education. Bilingual and Multilingual Education, 1-14. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02324-3_9-1
García, O., & Wei, L. (2015). Translanguaging, Bilingualism, and Bilingual Education. The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education, 223-240. doi:10.1002/9781118533406.ch13