Capitalized and Centered-Outline
According to Bonakdar & Sukiennik (2016), sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically
transformed disorder that presents various characteristics such as painful vaso-occlusive
episodes (VOEs), which affects the affected person from childhood. The disease is also
accompanied by noticeable pain.
b) Current issues
Apart from the sickle cell disease (SCD), researches also show that there are other
diseases that show future experiences in pain that is derived from recurrent pain during
childhood periods. The studies, which were carried out on various pediatric people show that
the child’s stage of development, painful insult and cumulatively how they have had
experiences with pain determines the complexity of the phenomenon. Health care sector
Pediatrics – The branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases.
II. Disciplines involved
a) Behavioral disorders
III. Topic Selection
Sensitization to Acute Procedural Pain in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease
Pain experienced during the life of the child is the primary issue of SCD. Children
with this genetically transformed condition have vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) that make
them feel a lot of pain. The unpredictable pain shows consistent persistence up to the
patient’s adult life; that is 38, 39, 44. The medical attention such as extra immunization
procedures, access done intravenously and venipunctures that done doctors do the children
with the disease causes the rise of their unpredictable painful experiences. It is essential to
understand the effects of the pain undergone during childhood for effective management of
the agony caused by both severe procedural pain and VOEs.
V. Literature Review
Both reflective and longitudinal studies present a suggestion that pain experienced
during childhood stages of growth may make the children to be aware of the future pain
(Schlenz et al., 2012). The gathered literature presents the idea suggesting the impact of
recurrent pain during infancy stages in leading to adulthood chronic pain (Bonakdar &
Sukiennik, 2016; Schlenz et al., 2012). Additionally, children experiencing this lasting type
of pain also display characteristics of augmented sensitivity to stimuli that results from
attention and bias (Bonakdar & Sukiennik, 2016). Research also shows that the level of
sensitivity caused by medical procedures is greater in younger children compared to the
VI. Process description
Procedural pain is evaluated using the reports collected from about the effected children and
the caregivers together with the account of observational distress. Besides, retrospective chart
reviews provide essential information on the history of pain history.
VII. Real/Hypothetical process
a) The implementation of changes, solving problems, and achievement of continuous
improvement process are done using plan-do-check-act (PDCA).
b) Its recurring nature makes its utilization to be done a consistent manner (Bonakdar &
VIII. Process to be improved
PROJECT OUTLINE 3
a. The effects of the pain experienced during the childhood stages shows
development and it is essential to research them.
b. It is essential to research for successful evaluation and understanding rationale of
growth and the endothelia system on awareness to pain.
IX. Team that knows the process
X. Current knowledge of the process
Both reflective longitudinal researches show that the pain experienced by children while
growing up prepares them to face future pain.
XI. Causes of special variation
iii. Environment (Bonakdar & Sukiennik, 2016)
XII. Selected process improvement
Retrospective chart review is used to determine the history of pain.
XIV. Data collected
Procedural pain is evaluated through the reports from the children and caregivers and from
the observable characteristics.
i. The outcomes of pain are impacted from the excessive pain experienced by
children during procedures
ii. The observable distress shows the association of procedural pain and high
frequency of VOEs across all ages.
a. The study presents a great implicit suggestion that covers the suffering of both the
children and the pediatric population.
b. Despite other researches focusing on management of VOEs, frequent pain also affects
children suffering from SCD as a result of annual medical procedures.
The effect of childhood pain is a hastily growing and imperative area of study. Research is
required to strictly appraise and comprehend the role of development and the endothelia
system on sensitization to pain.
PROJECT OUTLINE 4
Bonakdar, R., & Sukiennik, A. (2016). Integrative pain management. New York: Oxford
Daum, R., & Canel, J. (2011). Pediatric (pp. 56-105). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Schlenz, A., McClellan, C., Mark, T., McKelvy, A., Puffer, E., & Roberts, C. et al. (2012).
Sensitization to Acute Procedural Pain in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease: Modulation
by Painful Vaso-occlusive Episodes, Age, and Endothelin-1. The Journal Of
Pain, 13(7), 656-665. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.04.001