Social media use for communication, politics, and campaign between supporters and public figures have been on the rise from 2010 onwards. Even though political personalities, like Barrack Obama, former American president, had earlier started using social media as a campaign platform long before its use skyrocketed in 2010 (Dunmire, 2012). Social media applications in politics increased and registered impressive and steady growth. Social media, as a campaign platform, has grown to be a common practice around the globe. Most leaders are now making fair use of social media to communicate with electorates. Today most world leaders like American President Donald Trump is asserted to be commanding more followers on social media platforms than other young leaders like France president Emmanuel macron.
In Indonesia, the political class and leaders, in general, use social media platforms to communicate to the people more so the youths who are said to be social media addicts. When the retired Indonesian head of state Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono signed up on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook in 2013, he commanded a mass following these platforms (Dunmire, 2012). Up to date, he has never been challenged on social media. Indonesian opposition party leaders also used social media to reach off to its supporters and criticize the government of its evil doings. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono cabinet ministers also used social media to rely on and update the public ad outside the world of the government and their respective ministries.
The use of social media was seen in 2014, general political elections the then-presidential hopefuls like Prabowo subianto and Joko Widodo signed up to social media accounts like Instagram to sell their manifesto and policies besides communicating with their followers (Dunmire, 2012). The two aspirants, just like other politicians, used social media platforms only for campaign purposes but also for revealing their private undertakings to build the right image. For a majority of political office holders and politicians in Indonesia, social media is an avenue of relying on family and close associate stories, views, perceptions, policies, personal, and party activities (Sengul, 2019). The lively socioeconomic and political debates in Indonesia, specifically through social media platforms like Instagram during and after presidential voting, has attracted the young people who are always on social media. Through such debate, youths are propelled to politics and activism as they are not only informed but also can make sound and accurate decisions based on the obtained information from Instagram and other social media sites.
The use of social media has turned out to be a well-known channel of information and communication among the youths in Indonesia. In several occasions, social media has been used as a means to maintain interconnection with one another. Instagram, WhatsApp, Facebook, and Twitter are the most frequently used platforms to share concepts, opinions, photos, and videos freely on societal issues (Molei, 2017). Today, social media has mutated to become a necessity to attain political success. Most of the Indonesian political parties just like others around the globe have established their media units to aid in launching of online campaigns, presentation of a manifesto, and as a platform of winning the hearts of the electorates to vote in their favor. Most political parties also use social media as an avenue to conduct surveys because the responses are immediate. Today, many youths are interested in politics and political activities in general than the ancient days as a result of social media.
Social media has brought instilled power and sense in many young people with regard to voting, government doings, and political occurrences. Many youths are also being influenced by the information they get from social media (Sengul, 2019). A study has asserted that a majority of Indonesian youth have had their scope of observation, analyzing, and synthesis increased as an impact of engagement in media. In the course of this study, we will ascertain whether or not social media engages and educates young people in politics (Sengul, 2019). Presently the role and concept of social media in politics are unique compared to the preceding years as young people use information obtained from the social media to stage civic engagements like witnessed in the Arab world (Sengul, 2019). In Indonesia, offline internet debates brought about the public’s division with regards to the 2014 presidential elections. These debates also led to mass actions against a former governor of the Indonesian state of Jakarta for religious defamation.
Political literacy in Indonesia
To better understand Indonesia’s political literacy, the research uses three theories to analyze voter’s behavior and literacy in Indonesia. Sociology theory is the first theory; the theory asserts that voters will decide on a candidate with respect to the leader’s religion, social class, language, ethnicity, religion, and region (Molei, 2017). The electorate will hardly look at the policies or manifesto to the political party or person but majorly looks at the person with the same podium (Peace, 2011). Some Indonesian voters aligned themselves with the physics theory of behaviour and literacy. Electorates will tend to vote in a person with whom they share the same perception or interest. The interest may be similar value or bond in politics. The theory of rational choice is the final theory that Indonesian electorates aligned themselves (Obar & Wildman, 2015). The theory asserts that electorates will vote a political leader to the office if they feel that his/her leadership would aid in addressing and providing basic needs with regards to economic freedom.
Bernard, a renowned political scholar, asserts that political literacy a composite of skills, attitude, and knowledge geared towards uniform development. Indonesia’s political literacy is the real-life understanding of ideas that describes the average life of Indonesians (Peace, 2011). Political literacy not only describes the Indonesian knowledge politically but also gives the scope of how Indonesians make political decisions and engage in active political participation. A majority of the Indonesian population have the knowledge of their president and the political party that propelled him to power, where the monetary and fiscal support is coming from, and how various Indonesian government agencies, departments, and parastatals are operating and helping the people and the society in general (Obar & Wildman, 2015). Indonesian political literacy is not wanting as one may think since citizens are well equipped, actively engaged, and updated with the daily occurrences in the nation’s socio-economic and political arenas.
A majority of Indonesian that inhabits urban areas are purported to be politically literate compared to the village dwellers. The city dwellers are in a position to effectively and efficiently foretell the way problems or matters can be handled, unlike the rural dwellers who may not be in a position to access information and news updates on time. At the same time, the rural inhabitants can be easily manipulated and swayed to act against a formulated policy depicting that they are politically semi-literate (Peace, 2011). The degree of the Indonesian electorate is questionable, resulting in the questioning of their pollical literacy regarding the understanding of other voters’ views and the reason for their actions. It is depicted in 2014, the presidential election that ended up dividing the nation into two. Such an act of lack of understanding and respect of the ballot’s powers shows that the Indonesians are fully literate politically.
Social media has brought instilled power and sense in many young people with regards to voting, government operations, and the political occurrences. Many youths are also being influenced by the information they get from social media. A study has asserted that a majority of Indian youth have had their scope of observation, analyzing, and synthesis increased as an impact of engagement in media. In the course of this study, we will ascertain whether or not social media engages and educates young people in politics. Presently the role and concept of social media in politics are unique in comparison with the preceding years (Molei, 2017). A decade ago, before the dawn of Facebook, the period was characterized by two media which were print and electronic media. The two were majorly used in political crusades and could be easily influenced majorly by those in power. The coming of social media has revolutionized political campaigns and presentations in the community (Aspinall, 2014). Social media plays a crucial part in updating the young people about the manifesto of political unions, and the present situations in international, local, and national arena. Several types of research have been done on how social media can engage and educate the young people in politics around the globe and in India too. Our research analyses the application of social web sites in regard to various aspects to obtain a concrete result.
In Indonesian, the practice of using money as witnessed in Jakarta to lure, sway voters, and inform voting pattern is common (Aspinall, 2014). It compromises voters’ literacy and depicts that the societal, political knowledge needs to be keenly looked at to enhance and tighten the existing elections laws. Even though there is a law prohibiting the issuance of money to the political class’s electorates in an election period to bribe voters. The law is characterized by a number of loopholes that are often exploited by politicians (Aspinall, 2014). As a rule, prohibits money politics and, at the same time, fails to provide the definition and provide futures of money politics.
Though many Indonesian citizens are well acquitted with the law illegalizing the giving and receiving of money to manipulate an electorate, poverty levels and economic handicap among many Indonesian citizens make it difficult for the electorate to shun such offers. Even though they understand the illegality of receiving political money, the same voters would want to meet their socio-economic needs by finding food for their families (Molei, 2017). The poverty and unemployment rate of Indonesian hinder their political literacy levels by a more significant percentage. As voters will tend to make a decision with respect to the benefits, she/he received from the contesting partners. They are justifying the theory of rational choice.
Young Indonesian civic engagement
Civic engagement is basically the collective or individual actions in which societies take part to enhance the socio-economic and political well-being of a nation or community. Civic engagements have primarily overtaken the ancient civic engagement ways like societal meetings, acclamation voting, contacting local public leaders and writing of protest letters (Obar & Wildman, 2015). There have been numerous analogies on whether civic engagements may be too limited to its impact.
In present Indonesia, young people’s civic engagement is motivated by the digital media platform. Research has asserted that older people who subscribe to the idea that social media and the digital era as a totally unique experience have a strong fallacy with regards to the youth. Digital evolution has brought about a unique form of communication, cinematic media, print, and electronic (Obar & Wildman, 2015). Social media and digital development have brought about participatory culture on the Indonesian youths. It insinuates that social media, specifically Instagram, has brought about a degree of on-time information and updates an experience that was not there before. The news updates and information obtained through Instagram can speedily spread across various parts of the country in a peer-to-peer manner (Obar & Wildman, 2015). It is contrary to the centralized communication system that was majorly done via Indonesian newspaper press and television networks.
Over the last periods, young people in Indonesia took part in traditional actions of civic engagements even though limitedly since Indonesia was a wealthy democracy. It is asserted that during these early years, Indonesia’s political party membership and voting were majorly partaken to be an adult’s activity and young people were considered to be spectators (Obar & Wildman, 2015). Technological revolution and the mutation of Indonesia democracy brought about change in old notions and young people engagement in the nation’s socio-economic and political matters has been on a steady and continuous increase. Through social media, more so Instagram the young people have always been able to obtain information and news updates that help them be acquainted with the nation’s daily happenings (Martin, 2011). It is asserted that the high youth population turns out that was witnessed in the 2014 presidential political elections was a result of Instagram and other social media podiums that the presidential aspirants used as an avenue to reach out to their audiences.
In Indonesia today, the young people’s perception and approach to citizenship have changed compared to ancient times. Before the dawn of Instagram and social media in general, the youths hardly took part in citizenship acts in spite of the fact that a majority of them were permitted by law to engage in civic activities (Martin, 2011). Today young people have taken seriously civic matters of the state. They take part fully on state issues like voting, giving opinions, and even taking part in demonstrations to compel the regime to listen to their voice. Through digital podiums like Instagram, young people have been able to mobilize, stage their perception of issues, and decide. A study undertaken in America, Australia, and the United Kingdom asserted that social media enhances the union between the users besides being addictive (Owen, 2008). The study further stated that the use of Instagram promotes self-actualization on its users. It insinuates that social media is more so Instagram encourages political engagements and citizenship engagements in young people and society.
The young generation in Indonesia is turning to be a new generation in civic engagement catalyzed by social media. The application of Instagram has made young people to be more analytical and sensitive in decision making. The platform not only acts as a venue for posting memes, videos, and photos but also provide useful information and data that help the young people in decision making and getting the whole scope of issues (Azm, 2018). A recent study partaken has stated that the young people aged between eighteen and twenty-nine are most likely to participate in an election under the influence of information and data obtained from the social media platforms like Instagram (Owen, 2008). In Indonesia, the application of Instagram has impacted young people’s lives, and their actions and decisions are directly related to the information obtained from social media. Simultaneously, the young Indonesians are transforming discrete, isolated, and sole engagements for repertoire kind of civic meetings that correspond to an array of social media.
Other research has stated that in the digital era, social media use is growing and also becoming a norm. Many political parties around the world have resorted to social media use to communicate their intentions, manifestos, and promotions to lure and attract young people to follow them. Social media provides a good podium of getting information and updates of political events without primarily moving for a place to place to get the information (Obar & Wildman, 2015). The adoption of the new technological advancements has resulted in the emergence of fresh trends of political campaigns and strategies. Local based social media has also emerged and it is getting to be more popular across the globe. It is perceived to be a critical avenue of political crusades and communication (Aspinall, 2014). Young people are an asset of every nation that can engage them positively to attain the growth of the country. Young people taking part in politics is essential for the development of the nation’s democracy.
Young people, civic engagement is primarily essential for Indonesia. It exposes and educates the young Indonesia population at an early stage and equips them with the necessary skills in making them be vibrant future activists and leaders (Azmi, 2018). Young people worldwide, Indonesia included, have their sense of well-being and self-esteem anchored on socio-political empowerment. It is asserted that internet use by the youthful Indonesian generation brings about civic engagements. The young people’s social media civic engagement is fascinating as a majority of them display the process of making good leaders of tomorrow and will bail out Indonesia in the coming years since the young people are tomorrow’s leaders.
In the digital era, social media plays a critical part to educate and engage the youth in political issues. After examination of information and research works, some scholar asserted that a good number of youths not only chat in the social media but also use the same platform to watch the news from different broadcasting stations both local and international channels. The broadcasting stations have also created political talk shows during the news broadcast hour that plays an important part in entertaining, creating awareness, and educating the young people (Obar & Wildman, 2015).The exaction of social media use will lead to activation of youths to politics still remains a severe subject of discussion. At the same time, the correlation between social media, political information, and political responsiveness remain a matter of interest. A good number of young people are captivated by political talk shows. The research made a conclusion that a good number of people rely on social media to obtain information. Equally, social media had a critical role in influencing society and young people’s perception of political and other issues.
Social media offers a podium for users to communicate either individually or in groups. Access to social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram has proved to be difficult without internet access.
The role of social media
Among the numerous when the known application of social media, in Indonesia, its use has attracted the young population a great deal. It is asserted that Indonesia is the fourth nation, with the largest number of Instagram users totals to about fifty-six million (Owen, 2008). The ever-growing and changing use of social media has brought with it many changes in the manner in which people communicate and interact with each other (Azmi, 2018). In Indonesia, social media have been used in different ways to sort the demands and wants of the users. It has been applied to promote and sale goods and services, personal communication, and the provision of a learning environment. Over time, social media has gradually mutated to be a conventional information podium for young people.
Access to social media can be through computers or mobile smartphones. Through the gadgets, operators can download all kinds of data, photos, videos, documents, and information besides uploading it. Social media permits users to access and retrieve the information at any time and in any place (Obar & Wildman, 2015). Social media is undoubtedly an important podium through which firms, individuals, and groups can use to exchange information, content, and opinion freely. It is asserted that social media can convey a pervasive communication change in an individual, firm, and group. Some scholars have argued that networking media has transformed the conception of ageing media. Today Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook are the most commonly used social media platforms as a communication gadget in society. Social media has transformed political actions around the globe.
A study was done by Okorie, a renowned researcher of the social media asset that the majority of young people use interactive social media more frequently and in an active manner. He further asserts that a good number of junior youths of the age bracket of fourteen to seventeen have known to sign up and login social media accounts, that they access the sites daily. The study also found out that the junior youths with the internet at their disposal spend a substantive amount of time on social media websites (Obar & Wildman, 2015). The research further showed that the present social media speed and advances have promoted the degree of democracies and open the citizen’s eyes against dictatorial regimes. It is seen in the Arab world where social media played a critical role in bringing down authoritarian regimes plus its leaders down as depicted in Libya and Sudan.
In Pakistan, a study found out that social media is greatly managed by state agencies, the business community, and corporates. These entities are reported to be using social media for their benefit and hide the realities on the ground to make them gain either monetarily, fiscally, and politically (Owen, 2008). These business people with autonomous powers to control media are not or do not have any media training. On the contrary, research has asserted that social media brings about a different perspective of issues and provide a wider scope to people to look at matters (Martin, 2011). Social media and media in general at times give a poised approach of issues with the aim of making the general public get the comprehensive scope of the matter and make a good and sound decision. Mass communication media is often perceived to be the mirror of society. A country’s media will always represent the nation’s image to the outside world. The research ascertained that media and social media plays a significant part in influencing and informing society in decision making.
The distinction of the study
It is the first research on the above-stated topic to have been undertaken in Indonesia. It is a detailed study appropriate to the stated topic above that gives an opportunity to understand the degree levels at which young people are interested in local, national, and international political daises. It also depicts how young people are being educated and engaged through the application of social media. The research has defined the symbiotic relationship between social media and politics in educating and engaging the youths. The study also shows the social media correlations with the applicants’ education levels and employment status to deduce the impact of social media.
The research settled on Instagram as a social media site in our study to obtain the needed information since Indonesia is the fourth nation in the world with the largest users. This research gives us data about the most used social media site and asserted to be a reliable source of information and news updates. This research may also be used as a source of data and information for political parties and policy formulating agencies. The application of this research is primarily based on one’s goals.
Purpose of the study
The study aims to determine the extent of the increase in political literacy among millennials caused by political campaigns through social media. The research primarily aims to:
The relevance of the study
As April 2019 comes closer, Indonesian political presidential elections come nearer, and elections enthusiasm increases daily. At the same time, most active individuals on social media platforms are asserted to be fed by authentic information and other public relations-based information. Access to such toxic and unconstructive information can happen to everyone regardless of your level of education, religion, or social status. The research acts as an alarm concerning political literacy’s significance to permit Indonesia to uphold its peaceful and healthy democracy.
The research provides the significance and the viability of political education and engagement of the youths. Therefore, the study offers viable political literacy ideas easily understood by everyone in Indonesia, regardless of language, religion, and political affiliation. The research provides an in-depth look at the young Indonesians attitude, knowledge, and skill with respect to political literacy. With regards to elections, the study provides a poised provides detailed assessment of the young Indonesians ability to comprehend and make viable political decisions based on the information and data derived from Instagram.
Research method and design
Generally, this study is qualitative in type and uses discourse analysis characterized by well-planned interviews and pooling used in obtaining information.
4.1 Instagram textual analysis
4.2 Step one: Theory identification
The research primarily examines how Indonesia has an urgent need for political and media literacy education. The research has an opening research technique like use of Instagram, as a tool to enhance engagement and political literacy in young people in Indonesia. The research aims at refining our knowledge of social media role in influencing the young people to take part socio-economic, and political issues of a nation.
The research is based on the interviews and pooling’s. The interview was transcribed through checking whether the research is in course theory and examined pooling as per the operational scheme. The research built its concepts in three categories. Latter were separated in components and construct separated to dimension. All the dimension and construct were defined precisely. The research dimensions had multiple and single components per dimension. The research operational scheme is also made up of numbering coding that were applied in the examination.
All the components have numbering like 1.1, and 3.4. the research also has qualitative examination labels for examining the group dimensions on implication of Instagram, measure how much influence political messages are conveyed through social media against the political literacy of millennials, estimate how much influence the image of political figures is formed through social media against political literacy of millennials, measure how much influence creative political media content exerts through social media on millennial’s political literacy and measure how much influence political message, political figures imagery, and creative political media content literacy of millennials. The research has fuses labels in the qualitative analysis of dimensions group like high-low, and strong-weak.
|Social media site used by young people in Indonesia- Instagram||the role of millennials embodies the political literacy generation in INDONESIA to participate in politics||1.1||The grounds for using Instagram to promote political literacy|
|Specification of Instagram based on its services||1.2||Functionality and module|
|How can social media engage and educate young INDONESIAN in politics||1.3||The degree at which Instagram is engaged in provision of political motivation.|
|What factors encourage and influence these millennials to participate in political activities||1.4||The extend at which Instagram influences the young people to take part in political activities.|
|The interactions the young people develop through the use of Instagram that will help in engagement and political education||Joint acting||1.1|
|Using of Instagram daily to perform communicate and get information updates.|
Looking for the new advancements in social media specifically Instagram
|Communicating up to the degree in which Instagram can support||2.1|
|Critically looking at the negative implication of the Instagram.|
comparing with the ancient communication platforms with Instagram
declaring the young people’s problems in the application of Instagram
|The system that helps in proper use||Knowledge spreading – characters of the young people that aims at externalization of knowledge about Instagram with regards to enhancing is application.||3.1|
|Showing of Instagram’s operations|
Looking at how the political class have applied it to expound their reach in the society.
Precisely looking at the implication of Instagram in educating and engage the Indonesia youths in political issues of the nation.
|sharing understanding||4.1||Clearness on the use of Instagram with regards to reaching out politically to the young Indonesian audience.|
|4.2||The political class and youth need in the system|
|4.3||Understanding how Instagram is used to reach a big audience|
|Attitude of the young people with respect to the use of Instagram|
|Mutual adjustment – events that intends to bring about a joint pact on use of Instagram.||5.1|
|An insight at how the application of Instagram has enhanced the political engagement and literacy in the young people.|
Formulate policies to govern the use and information content that can be shared on Instagram and other social media sites.
Evaluating immediate outcomes
4.4 Step three; Sampling
Two hundred people were randomly selected for the study with one hundred and ninety-six male and fifty-four female. Representing all walks of lives found in the Jakarta Indonesia.
Type of data
In the research, primary data was used. A well-planned interview was admitted as a data collection technique and two hundred interviews were conducted each lasting between forty-five minutes. A total of three thousand hours was consumed to partake the interviews.
the research seriously engaged participants in stimulated variability and conversation by posing inflammatory questions, confronting participants with contrary opinions, facilitating disagreements, and initiating dialogues. The research undertook interview with semi-planned questions, but in the course of the interviews the research applied pooling technique. Additionally, more concerns arouse during the interview on the grounds of our enhanced context knowledge. The research observed that every fresh interview had a symbiotic relation with the past one. The research also used prior information and data to enhance the proceeding conversation. For instance, a very charming conversation between researcher and one of the interviews began by posing the question on how the interviewee perceived Instagram, and the discussion brought an understating expression that covered virtually all the necessary contents.
|Traditional interviews||Interviews for discourse analysis|
|Objective- to get uniformity in response which one is the core evidence.||Objective- to get both diversity and consistency in replies. Member and feedback checks are necessary evidence.|
|Systems are concerned with supporting uniformity|
|Systems are concerned with support diversity:|
Ø active intervention
Ø provocative questions
Ø informal information exchange
Ø facilitating disagreements
|All the administered interviews are independent from one another||All the interview is interrelated with the context and previous ones.|
|The environment throughout an interview is neutral and friendly in nature|
|The environment is friendly and vital to bringing informal tones.|
|speaking questionnaires is an interviewer||Dynamic character of an interviewer|
4.6 step five; transcription
The research was primarily concerned by the extent of the increase in political literacy among millennials caused by political campaigns through social media. The significant role of Instagram in communication and obtaining data by both the political class and the electorates remained in the center of transcription. It explains why the research records are word represented, and fairly gross characters like clearness, hesitation, transparency, doubts, and self-evidence.
The research used primary discourse to obtain and have a uniform understanding. Through member check the research was able to obtain responses from the interviews on the authenticity of the pooling. The pooling and transcriptions were discussed with the participants. The research primarily used electronic mail communication platform, where interviewees presented their opinions as a message, and edited the pools online. In a few cases the research engaged the participants in a few discussions. The research undertook forty-five minutes interview and also allocated two hours follow-ups conversations with the participants. The research also completes a transcript immediately after an interview to maintain the discussion in the minds of the interviewee and researcher.
The results depict that forty per cent of the participants are in the age group of 18-21 years of age, while sixty per cent of the participants were in the age bracket of 22-25years. Twenty-two of the respondents were of the female gender, and seventy-eight per cent were male.
According to the outcome, eight per cent of the population was from extended family, sixty-two per cent of the participants come from a nuclear family, and thirty per cent of the population was from the joint family setting.
According to the research, five per cent of the population under study were employed. Eighteen per cent of the participants were unemployed. Twenty per cent of the population was self-employed, while fifty-six per cent of the research population were students.
According to the research, eight per cent out of the total population challenging primary education as the highest level. Seventy per cent of the respondents were secondary school certificate holders as the highest point reached. Fifty-two per cent of the population understudy acquired diploma as their highest education. Twenty-one per cent of the respondents were graduates as the highest education attained, while only three per cent of the respondents were master’s degree holders as their highest level reached.
The result from the research fifty-nine per cent of the respondents subscribed to the idea that social media engages and educates the young people in politics. Forty-one per cent of the population under study had a contrary opinion that social media did not engage or teach young people in politics.
Results and findings
The research asserts that social media has a significant influence on engaging and educating young people in politics. Social media sites educated and made young people take part in politics. The research depicts that social media site like Instagram have played a significant role in enhancing young people political consciousness. At the same time, social media platforms have captured and quarantined young people minds in politics. It is true, according to the research, that social media has instigated youths to participate in politics. The study asserts that the evolution of social media applications has brought about significant change in the way political parties reach out to followers and undertake political campaigns across the globe. The research also shows that social media is playing a critical role in influencing the way young people make their political decisions. As it provides numerous scopes in which a political and social matter can be viewed. Majority of social media users perceive it to be relying on sound and authentic information. In the same perception, social media is considered to be a very significant source of obtaining information and data since information can be accessed anywhere and everywhere.
The evolution of social media has brought about significate change in young people. Via social media, young people can engage and debate with regards to political and social issues and likely give their views on how the issues could be addressed. The young people who take most of their time in social media could share a lot of information, documents, videos, and photos about political issues around. At the same time, they will be well informed about political occurrences around them. The highest education level reach by young people play a critical role in their political participation as they are very equipped with the latest technological advancement. At the same time, their education level fused with social media information would help the young people make a valid and sound decision with regards to political and social issues as they are in a position to synthesize matters from different scopes. Through the use of social media, a good number of the respondents asserted to be in a position to give a view on political issues around them. Social media has played a critical role in educating and engaging the young people in politics. Today youths can confidently rise against authoritarian regimes and their leaders like seen in Libya, Sudan, Egypt, and Syria as a result of information obtained in social media. Employment status of an individual does not influence his/her use of social media.
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