Retention of the teachers in a given school is one of the ways of improving learning. There are many factors that affect the movement of the teachers from one institution to the other in the organization. Some will move because they have found good schools that have better terms of payment and most of them will move because they do not feel motivated working in the institution. The poor schools have poor working conditions that most teachers do not want to associate within their line of duty which makes many teachers to move. There have been calls to diversify the workplace as a way of improving the education condition in the schools. It is important for the schools to deal with the issue of teacher turnover because it is costly to the institution. One of the cost is the fact that the school has to deal with the loss of their valued teachers who could make the students understand the concepts in the courses that they are leaning. It is important for the institutions to assess their working environment to ascertain if it can positively influence the work done by the teachers in the workplace. The principals who are committed to the professional growth of their students, their teachers as well as the other staffs in the institutions can retain more teachers in the workplace.
Retention of the teachers in a given school is one of the ways of improving learning. However, most schools have problems with retaining the teachers in the institutions for a long time. Some of them are likely to leave because of the inability of the institution to pay them accordingly. Some will move because they have found good schools that have better terms of payment. The teacher turnover is high in the high-poverty schools because they are most of the times unable to meet the needs of the teachers in the organization. The teachers moving from the so-called poor schools end up in the institutions that serve the rich populations showing that most teachers are dissatisfied with working with the poor minority students (Simon & Johnson, 2015). The trend is worrying since there will be a time when it will be difficult for the children coming from the rich families to get a high-quality education so that they can compete with their counterparts coming from the rich neighborhoods.
According to Simon & Johnson, (2015) the poor schools have poor working conditions that most teachers do not want to associate within their line of duty. There has been an argument that the teachers that are moving from the schools that are serving the poor people are running away from their students, but research says otherwise since it indicates that they run from the poor working conditions in the schools. Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) note that teacher turnover has a negative influence on the learning process of a student. The research also notes the possibility that the teacher turnover may be beneficial to the students in a given school. In a research that was conducted by Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) on the New York City fourth- and fifth-grade student by making observations throughout 8 years showed that high teacher turnover affected the ability of the students in learning mathematics and English language arts. The study also noted the fact that high teacher turnover had a disruptive effect among the students and had an effect on the quality of instructions provided by the teacher.
According Boser, (2014), there have been calls to diversify the workplace as a way of improving the education condition in the schools. It has been noted that the teacher of color leaves the schools at a much higher rate compared to their white counterparts in the United States of America. Boser, (2014) also noted that the teacher retention is affected by policy-amenable school-level conditions that are related to the human, financial, social as well as the cultural capital. There is, therefore, need to address the issues and finds the appropriate ways that may be used to retain the teachers in the schools since the schools are affected by the high turnover rate of the teachers. The paper also notes the fact that the teachers of color are likely to work in the hard to staff urban schools that serve the students from the low income, non-dominant racial and cultural communities in the United States of America compared to their white counterparts. The paper also notes the fact that the factors that affect the retention of the teachers of color contribute to the staffing of the urban schools that have quality teachers. The factors include the teacher’s innovative approaches, humanistic commitments in the teaching profession.
Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) sought to understand why teacher attrition occurs in the schools as well as the factors that moderate the outcomes of attrition in the learning institutions. They noted the fact that the personal characteristics of teachers are essential predictors of turnover among the teachers. The attributes of the schools such as the student body composition, the organizational characteristics, as well as the resources available in the schools are key moderators. According to the research done by Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) teacher turnover is not always healthy, it is influenced by various personal and professional factors that change across teachers’ career paths. The paper notes the fact that the problem of teacher attrition in the organization can be solved using the various policies and initiatives. Three components of teacher turnover have been identified by Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) as they sought to find out whether the excessive teacher turnover was the cause of the teacher shortages in the organization. The paper noted that the teacher transfer rates had increased from 1991-1992 to 2000-2001. Teacher turnover is on the increase as the days go by in such a way that it has led to a genuine concern among the members of the public with regards to the issue. Evidence states that teacher turnover is likely to increase as the conditions in the teaching career change in such a way that it affects the students and the teachers in the institutions of learning. The increase in the teacher’s turnover can be dealt with by the unified supply of high-quality teachers in the organization, good management practices as well as funding the public schools. The government should also improve the school infrastructure to ensure that the working conditions are friendly to all the students and teachers in the institutions of learning since it emerges that most teachers leave the schools because they do not like the teaching environment.
Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, (2014) also contributed important information to the topic. Their research noted the fact that the teachers will always face stress and have a hard time comping with the teaching environment. The teachers, therefore, require important problem-solving techniques if they have to deal with the problems that they face in the working environment. The study noted that the young, inexperienced teachers had more avoidance strategies compared to the maturely aged novices. The study identified three critical times that supported the adaptation of the teachers in the workplace, and they include the first semester for assistance, first weeks of appointment for information, support, and feedback for development of competence as well as three months for certainty and stability.
It is important for the schools to deal with the issue of teacher turnover because it is costly to the institution. Egalite, Kisida, & Winters, (2015) continued with the study on the costs that the schools have to pay as a result of the turnover of the teachers in the institution. One of the cost is the fact that the school has to deal with the loss of their valued teachers who could make the students understand the concepts in the courses that they are leaning. One of the challenges that the students face in their learning process is lack of consistency in their learning process as a result of having a change in the instructors. The process of advertising and hiring new teachers is also costly to the schools in terms of money which calls for them to ensure that they retain the teachers that they already have in the institution as a way of lowing the costs that they have to undergo while they continue with the teaching process in the educational institution according to Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, (2014).
On the other hand, high-quality teachers leave the classroom which affects both the performance of the students as well as the school’s district fiscal operations. The implication for the study includes the planning the teacher induction programs that can improve the retention of the teachers in a given organization. The institution will also be able to take care of their teachers to ensure that all the activities are well handled in the school to the benefit of the students and the teachers. The cost of teacher attrition may be measured using two fiscal measurements which include the Teacher Turnover Cost Calculator and the School Turnover analysis. Goldring, Taie, & Riddles, (2014) also suggest the future research that will enable people to understand the issues at hand and know how to apply them in their lives.
The research by Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, (2013) also assessed the effects of teacher turnover in the schools and the institutions in general. According to the paper, it resulted in the deficit of the high-quality teachers and instructions; it led to the loss of continuity and commitment to the education process. More time has to be devoted for the schools to get good teachers they undergo losses since the teachers are most likely to leave the institution again. The effects of teacher turnover are likely to prevent them from working to realize the success of the institution since they always think of leaving the institution from time to time. The leadership styles used by the principles which lead the institutions as well as the other leaders are also able to affect the teacher turnover in the schools. The leadership strategies in the schools that have lower turnover and a lower teacher attrition rates will help in understanding the role that the leadership in the schools has with regards to the teacher turnover according to the research conducted by M. Ghamrawi, & Jammal, (2013). The paper notes that the principles that have an awareness of the issues that affect the new teachers, the principles that are proactive in such a way that they can support the teacher by using a proactive approach are likely to encourage the teachers to remain in the institutions and remain motivated in the schools. The principals who are committed to the professional growth of their students, their teachers as well as the other staffs in the institutions can retain more teachers in the workplace.
Teaching and learning some subjects is affected by teacher turnover in a given institution according to Ingersoll, Merrill, & Stuckey, (2014). The study examined the magnitude, determinants, and destinations of mathematics and science teacher turnover. The two subjects are challenging to the students compared to the other subjects that they have to learn in the schools. According to the paper, the data from the nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey shows that teacher turnover affects the learning process of the students in the institution. The survey indicates an increase in the science and mathematics teachers, and it notes that there is no difference between the turnover of the science and mathematics teachers compared to those of the other students in the institution. It, therefore, means that the teacher turnover affects the teaching of all the subjects contrary to the popular belief that most of the science and mathematics teachers are likely to leave. According to Ingersoll, Merrill, & Stuckey, (2014), a number of the teachers of mathematics and science are likely to take non-education jobs, such as in technological fields or to be working for private business or industry. According to the research, the rate of the mathematics and science teacher turnover is different from school to school. The study also showed the cases where teachers were moved from the public schools in the poor neighborhoods to the ones that are found in the rich neighborhood. Some of them also move from the high minority areas to the low minority schools while the others move from urban to suburban schools. The differences in the teacher composition and the transfer of the instructors from one institution to the other depending on the ability of the institution to pay competitive salaries and provide a good working environment to the people within the organization.
It is advisable to understand the primary cause of teacher turnover to deal with several issues in the society. Torres, (2016) researched the primary factors that cause teacher turnover at Charter Management Organizations (CMOs) as a way of understanding whether the claims given by the people with regards to the causes of teacher attrition is true. The perception of the teachers may give useful information about what they are going through in the institutions that they work to understand why some of them would prefer leaving the institution instead of remaining in the institution for the betterment of the society. The data may be collected through the use of the surveys that will also give the researchers a chance to understand the feelings that the students have against the institution and the overall factors that make the teachers uncomfortable in the educational institutions. It is important to note that the teachers will leave the institutions even if they are good in search for greener pastures just to have a change in the environment. The organization should not always be blamed for the fact that the teachers leave since the teachers have a right to teach wherever they like. Torres (2016) found out that the workload which the students were exposed to was one of the important reasons why the teachers decide of leaving a given school. It therefore important for the institutions to ensure that their schools are well staffed and the teachers do not have to face hardships in their line of duty. In the research conducted by Torres (2016) the teachers agreed that their workload was unmanageable in the organization. About 1 out of 3 teachers who rated their workload “unmanageable” reigned from their respective schools and left compared to the 1 in 10 who could manage their workload. Unmanageable workload lowers the morale of the teachers hence they are not able to work as they ought to in the organization. The paper also compared the effect of the perceptions that the people have towards the leadership of the organization and their ability to grow professionally in the organization. The institutions’ student disciplining systems are also one of the predictors of teacher turnover in the schools according to the study conducted by Torres (2016).
Buchanan et. al. (2013) noted the fact that the teachers were leaving the institutions at a very high rate as a result of a variety of issues in the society. According to the research, 33% of the teachers leave their schools in the first three years whereas 46% of the teachers left the school after five years. The paper notes a host of problems that are associated with the high attrition rates in the society. They note the fact that the attrition affects the quality of education provided by the learning institutions because the inexperienced teachers are hired to teach the students in the institution. They also spend a lot of money in the hiring and training of the new students that are joining the workforce. The institutional planning and development are therefore harder as the people try their best to improve the institutions of learning. The paper noted that the non-salary job dissatisfaction was one of the reasons why the teachers left their workstations. The dissatisfaction includes excessive workloads, as well as the high stakes testing, disruptive student behavior, poor leadership and administration within schools, and views of teaching as a temporary profession. Many institutions have tried to increase the salaries in an attempt to keep the teachers in the workplace for longer. However, it has come to their notice that most of the factors that contribute to the teacher attrition in the schools are not salary based. Several studies have indicated the fact that an increase in the salary is only a temporary measure and that other factors can be considered in the research. Marginal salary increments only have marginal effects on the teacher attrition and retention in the places of work.
It is important for the institutions to assess their working environment to ascertain if it can positively influence the work done by the teachers in the workplace. The principals who are committed to the professional growth of their students, their teachers as well as the other staffs in the institutions can retain more teachers in the workplace. The government should also improve the school infrastructure to ensure that the working conditions are friendly to all the students and teachers in the institutions of learning since it emerges that most teachers leave the schools because they do not like the teaching environment. The process of advertising and hiring new teachers is also costly to the schools regarding money which calls for them to ensure that they retain the teachers that they already have in the institution as a way of lowing the costs that they have to undergo while they continue with the teaching process in the educational institution.
Boser, U. (2014). Teacher Diversity Revisited: A New State-by-State Analysis. Center for american progress.
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Egalite, A. J., Kisida, B., & Winters, M. A. (2015). Representation in the classroom: The effect of own-race teachers on student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 45, 44-52.
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