A summary on The adoption of Title IX: A ban on sex discrimination in education. In Title IX:The transformation of sex discrimination in education. By Busch and Thro.
The article begins by highlighting the struggles experienced before Title IX,the movement against sexual discrimination began with the civil rights movement to end racial discrimination. The writers look at various advancements that were made in a bid to promote women rights, from the fourteenth amendment ,the Presidents Commission on the Status of Women(PCSW) to the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC). The activists soon realised that passing laws was not enough to curb sex discrimination. The laws need to be properly and adequately enforced.
Due to this discovery,activists began to lobby for Title VII to include affirmative action for women not to be discriminated in the workplaces. Unfortunately, education was not captured when the laws were being made. Women were not included in mechanics classes and industrial arts while men were not allowed to go to secretarial, home economics and nursing classes. The same situation was prevalent in universities, despite being qualified women had to justify their positions. The writers use Havard Law as an example where females had a difficult time.
In the article ,the authors give the history of ending discrimination against women in education. Between 1970 and 1972 two legislations made their way through the house and the Senate, The Higher Education At of 1965 and the equal rights amendment. Bernice Sandler was one of the women who vehemently fought for the inclusion of women, after her rejection from the University of Maryland, she worked with Women’s Equity Action League to sue the university. Her actions caused ripple effects which led to the passing of Title IX on February 28, 1972.
The implementing guidelines scrapped away all the boundaries that were put up against women, in courses admissions and athletics. Title IX aims to even the education playing field for both men and women; it seeks to eliminate preferential and advantageous system based on sex. The jurisdiction of Title IX ,educational system that receives any amount of federal funding. The exemptions were in relation to the washroom, single-sex institutions ,single-sex clubs among others. The Office for Civil Rights is mandated with the enforcement of Title IX. They OCS ensures compliance with Title IX by carrying out investigations when they receive a complaint and give recommendations.
In the article, students can also enforce Title IX by reporting institutions that violate the provisions. The authors conclude by stating that the rule of law is the most powerful mode of enforcement.