"What did you learn about Vieques from reading Chapter 11, "Vieques: The Land, the
People, the Struggle, and the Future," by Deborah Berman Santana."
From this chapter, I have learned that the Vieques struggle is essential to more than
Puerto Rico. For instance, the people of color are entitled to the right as well as the means of
remaining in their communities even after the improvement of the conditions. Nobody can
question the challenge inherent in the difficulty of the world's most powerful military. However,
the greater problem is the one of waiting what happens to Vieques after the navy left and
prepared for it. It is clear that the main problem in Vieques is racism and colonialism that has
been used for the justification of sacrificing people as well as lands for the security of others.
This is an antiracism struggle because it encompasses the efforts of oppressed people of color to
confront their oppressors and stand to shape the future of their society. Therefore, I have learned
that this is a war of independence and self-governance for the people of Vieques that would
ensure the safety of their property and people.
"What did you learn about the Niger Delta from reading Chapter 12, "Alienation and
Militancy in the Niger Delta: Petroleum, Politics, and Democracy in Nigeria," by Oronto
Douglas, Dimieari von Kemedi, Ike Okonta, and Michael Watts."
Undoubtedly alienation is the main cause of militancy in the Niger Delta. It is clear that
alienation from natural resources, livelihood means, and endangered species are discovered. This
literature about the condition of Niger Delta confirms that the oil industry hasn't enhanced the
development of the area but instead, it has facilitated its degradation. The oil industry has
TOPIC QUESTIONS 3
encouraged environmental pollution and degradation. The oil industry instead of impacting
economic improvement, has caused ethnic-based political domination that has been used to
deprive people of their natural resources. Exploration and production of oil are interconnected
with several devastating activities affecting the environment and impacting the economy of the
society negatively. The impact of the Niger Delta includes productivity loss, displacement, and
increased poverty. Development in Niger Delta has stagnated development. Therefore, there is
the need for economic reforms that focuses on developing the region and empowering the